General Posters Session
2016
Monday, April 18th
12:00 PM

Assessing the impacts of human-induced degradation on stream ecosystem function

Carla Rothenbuecher, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Bilingual Language Distance Predicts Dementia Rating

Morgan Owens, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Carbon Sink to Carbon Pool; The Brazilian Amazon

Ashtan H. Williams, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Development of Autonomous Crazyflie Drone

Luke Kamrath, Murray State University
Shafe S. Boles, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Different teaching strategies of environmental education and how effective they are are promoting environmentally conscious action in students

Grecia White, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Dressed to Impress (or Is She?): Judgments of Attraction Based on Attire

Emily C. Rohrer, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Effects of Various Land Uses in Stewart County, TN on Selected Soil Properties

Tanner R. McIntyre Mr., Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content

Gunner B. Decker, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Evaluation of Physical Soil Quality Indicators in Natural vs Agricultural Ecosystems

Mary G. Derting Miss, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Isotopic Niche Analysis of Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad

Dalton D. Lebeda, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Land Management Effects on Selected Properties of Silt Loam Soil in Tennessee, USA

Kang-Chi Wu, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Media Representations of Offenders in Televison Series "Law and Order"

Darcy L. Sullivan, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Modernity and its effects on over-medication in health care

Shelby Kathleen Gray, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Musical Preschoolers: A Music Curriculum for Two-year-olds

Maurice Hanley, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

PAM­1 and autophagy pathways intersect to regulate gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

Ashley N. Munie, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Predictors of Convenient Sample Behaviors

Heith C. Chandler, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Put Your Shirt on: An Examination of Provocative versus Casual Clothing on First Impressions

Katelyn Geilear, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Size Structure, Age, Growth and Spawning Periodicity of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in Kentucky Lake, Kentucky

Allison DeRose, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Testing the Relationship Between Land Use and the Presence of a Lethal Amphibian Disease

Melanie Torres, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The effects of the fungus Beauvaria sp. on the cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus

Christina N. Walker, Murray State University
Derrick J. Jent, University of Florida
Claire A. Fuller, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Tri-colored Bat Roost Tree Use and Movement Patterns Following White-nose Syndrome in Western Kentucky

Katherine Schaefer, Murray State University
Terry Derting, Murray State University
Jordan Robbins, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Where is the Justice? A Critical View of the Supreme Court

Christopher J. Mahan, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Whiskey Tango Foxtrot: Militaristic video games on nationalistic attitudes and violence

David I. Crittendon, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Zooplankton Community in the Delaware Bay During Summer: Spatial Distribution and Environmental Correlates

Nathan A. Tillotson, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Wednesday, April 20th
10:00 AM

A Comprehensive Survey of 3-D Graphics Software and File Formats

Kendra A. Kennedy, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

This research project is a comparative survey of various 3-D graphics software and 3-D graphics file formats, with the intention of discerning which software and file formats are superior in individual categories including, but not limited to: cost effectiveness, range of uses, user-friendliness, visual quality, and file size, as well as best overall. My initial research for the 3-D graphics software will include looking up the qualitative and quantitative aspects of each software including: primary uses, total cost, overall quality, popularity, user-friendliness, and availability of learning materials. My beginning research for the file formats will similarly include consumer imperative attributes such as: software compatibility, flexibility of usage, file size, and visual quality. After compiling and analyzing important attributes of 3-D graphics software and file-formats, I will compose a comparative grading algorithm for individual categories, such as those mentioned above, and combine the results of those grades into adjustable composite scores for each of the software and file-formats respectively. The composite scoring algorithm will allow alterations for higher and lower desired attributes, such as cost for a student, or user-friendliness for a 3-D graphics neophyte.

Attitudes Predicting Patriotism and Nationalism

David I. Crittendon, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Two important parts to national identification are patriotism (positively identifying with one’s own country) and nationalism (i.e., contempt for countries other than one’s own; Citrin, Wong, & Duff, 2001; Williams, Foster, & Krohn, 2008). Although these two constructs are closely interrelated, they are separate. Of particular interest is whether one can predict increased nationalism or patriotism, with personality variables, (i.e., core conservatism and smugness) as well as other related attitudes, such as attitudes toward internationalism, civil liberties, a world government, and desire for punishment. The current study examined the relationship between other related attitudes to patriotism and nationalism. Specifically, we examined smugness, attitudes toward global welfare, civil liberties, world government beliefs, military approval, and desire for punishment. The usable sample provided empirical evidence for researching attitudes that may contribute to higher patriotism or nationalism. A series of correlations indicated relationships between the variables. Additionally, a multiple regression indicated patriotism is significantly predicted by negative attitudes toward civil liberties and a world government, increased smugness, and increased conservativism, F(6, 67) = 23.04, p < .001, R2= .67. However, nationalism was only predicted by increased smugness, F (6, 67) = 12.16, p < .001, R2 = .52). The results indicate that a combination of these variables and attitudes can successfully predict patriotism. In addition, the smugness variable was the only predictor of nationalism. Significant findings add to the current research and may help future researchers develop a way to enhance patriotism without the derogatory attitudes of nationalism.

Betsy Plank

Iqra Ilyas, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Public Relations Society of America and Publicity Club of Chicago’s first woman president, Betsy plank was first to achieve what many would refer to as a male dominant position since public relations wasn’t even on her degree of study. She attained national and international stature during her distinguished career of 63 years. Establishment of Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) and Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations are among her major achievements. Her legacy is most visible in the countless public relations professionals, educators and students who credit her with taking the time to mentor them throughout her career. Her focus on others led her to become the most individually-recognized woman in the industry, a testament to the value of selflessness in professionalism.

Dorothea Lange

Andrea R. Moore, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Dorothea Lange was a famous photojournalist in the United States in the early 1900s. She studied photography at Columbia University in addition to holding apprenticeships in portrait photography, but soon fell in love with documentary photography. Lange’s images sparked global conversation among citizens as well as informed them of world events taking place near and far away from them. Her images made news more tangible and helped people around the globe understand one another.

Epidemiology of Five Major Diseases Affecting Cattle in Kentucky 2015

Madelyn K. Pelletier, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Five major diseases affecting cattle in the state of Kentucky during the year of 2015 include but are not limited to: Anaplasmosis, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Leptospirosis, Johne’s Disease, and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). Using the USALims, the information management system used by the Murray State Breathitt Veterinary Center, this study will examine the epidemiology of these five diseases in terms of location in the state and time of year the diseases are prevalent. These five diseases where chosen due to volume of cases and their fatal affect. Cattle producers in Kentucky are losing thousands of dollars due to the epidemic nature of these diseases. The aim of this study is to find trends in where the diseases are widespread and what time of year cattle are affected. In completing this study the objective is to provide cattle producers in Kentucky with the information to better prepare for the diseases that affect their area and what times of year their animals are more at risk for contracting these diseases. With the information provided in this study cattle producers in Kentucky should be able to adapt techniques to help improve profits by lowering fatalities to Anaplasmosis, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Leptospirosis, Johne’s Disease, and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV).

Helen Lansdowne Resor

Shannon A. Hilkey, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Helen Landsdowne Resor is known as being the first female copywriter. She contributed to the advertising world in a way that women simply didn’t at that time. She was the first woman to successfully plan and write national advertising, rather than just retail ads. In particular, she is credited with creating a new style of "feature story" advertising that used illustrations and text that appealed to readers' emotions. Perhaps her greatest contribution to copywriting, however, was her idea that "copy must be believable.” She was also able to tie in her feminism beliefs into her creative work. She took an ad for facial soap and sexualized the copy with the phrase, “A skin you love to touch.” In addition to her creative work, Resor mentored young women wanting to advance in advertising and set up a woman editorial department in the ad agency where she worked.

Hidaya Al Salem achievements.

Abdullah Alajmi, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Title:

Hidaya Al Salem: Her fight against corruption and the police force, and for full suffrage for women.

Hidaya was born in Kuwait 1935 and died in 2001. She was the first female journalist, and also the first middle school teacher in Kuwait City. Al Salem was a Kuwaiti social activist who campaigned against official corruption and also she was a Kuwaiti feminist who are demanding the right of Kuwaiti women to vote in political election. Al Salem was an active board member of the Kuwait journalists’ association, Kuwaiti women's association, owner and editor in chief of Al-Majalis magazine. She was the author of notable women in the holy Quran. She explained how Islam treated women nicely in her book notable women in the holy Quran. In 2001, Al Salem was murdered in Kuwait City, when an armed attacker opened fire on her six times while she was driving her car to women and culture conference. According to press reports, “the reasons behind this assassination could be alleged financial disputes within Al Salem's family and other alleged disputes with some of her employees”.

History of Bader Koryem in Saudi Media

Mohammed Alsaeed, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The professor Bader Koryem is one of the first media practitioners in Saudi Arabia. he is one of the most important names in Saudi Arabian mass media. He started working with media since 1957. He continued working with different type of media vehicle till he passed away last year. His enhancement to Saudi media is limitless. At the time he started to work with media, the Saudi media was in it's beginning. He worked as Radio broadcaster, GM of Saudi Arabian Radio, GM of PR management at Marwa Foundation, GM of Saudi Press, Professor at IMSU and he worked at the head of king Faisal Bin Abdulaziz public relation department for 11 years. Lastly, he published 6 different books about media.

Implementation of Flipped Classrooms in a Non-Major Biology Course

Leah Good, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

With major calls for reform in STEM education from professional organizations (e.g. AAAS, NIH, NSF), studies have found that faculty in higher education can improve student learning by changing their teaching from teacher-centered to student-centered. Change in teaching practice can be difficult, however, especially without significant training. One method of introducing student-centered teaching practices into the classroom is through the use of a flipped classroom model, where students engage in learner-centered activities within the classroom and receive passively-transmitted information outside the classroom. The focus of my study was two-fold, (a) to determine if the flipped classroom method affects student learning gains (b) and if the flipped classroom method affects student’s attitudes towards science and science literacy in an introductory non-major’s biology course. Surveys of teaching beliefs, teaching practices, and classroom observations of faculty participants were used to characterize flipped classrooms (n=4) and traditional classrooms (n=3). No training in teaching practice was provided to any faculty participant. Faculty who flipped their course used significantly more student-centered learning practices in the classroom. Students who attended a flipped class, however, had significantly lower overall learning gains than those in traditional classrooms. Students’ attitudes towards science and scientific literacy did not differ between class type. My results were consistent with prior research that showed that student performance was lower in student-centered classes when taught by faculty who lacked training in the use of student-centered teaching practices.

Ivy Lee

Faisal Zaben Alotaibi, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Ivy Lee: The Father of Modern Day Public Relations.

Ivy Ledbetter Lee is a prominent figure in the field of public relations and an American publicity expert. He is said to be the founder of what is presently known as public relations. He set up the Association of Railroad Executives which was used as a public relations service for the rail industry. He was able to use public relations to improve the morale of employees. One of such example is his use of internal magazines to motivate employees. He also held other positions such as Publicity Director for American Red Cross and later became the assistant to the Chairman of the American Red Cross.

James E. Grunig: Legend of PR

Fangning Yuan, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

James E. Grunig specialized in public relations, communication and dissemination of scientific theory. In 1984, Grunig and Todd Hunt co-authored Management of Public Relations. This approach is demonstrated in their definition of PR, which states: “public relations activities are part of the management of communication between an organization and its publics” (Grunig and Hunt, 1984, p.7-8). Grunig was an active social activist, and his name was on the list of all the important members of the U.S. academic communication organizations. Grunig’s significant contribution to the four models of PR is: 1. The Press Agentry Model. 2. The Public Information Model. 3. The 2-way asymmetrical model. 4. The 2-way symmetrical model. This contribution makes him in the superior position in his American PR community.

Judy Smith "A guiding hand"

Nicole D. Denkenberger, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Judy Smith lending a guiding hand.

Judy Smith though she her self may not be a household name many of the people she has advised and dealt with their crisis are, people such as Monica Lewinsky and Michal Vick. She has worked her way up to being one of the top names and go to people in PR and crisis management. Not just for individual people but for companies as well.

Smith was born in Washington D.C. and attended college at Boston College were she earned her bachelors after graduating she then attended American University were she graduated form the Washington College of Law. She was the first African- American female to serve as executive editor for the American University Law Review.

After receiving her law degree Smith eventually made her way to the White House were she served as Deputy Press Secretary to President George H.W. Bush. After leaving the White House she struck out on her own and started her own firm Smith & Company. It was there that she faced some of the challenges that she became known for handling such as Monica Lewinsky, Michal Vick and Sony.

Kentucky Lake: An Opportunity for Long Term Monitoring of Fish Communities

Bradley Hartman, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Global aquatic ecosystems are impacted by a variety of mechanisms including habitat destruction, fish overharvest, and the introduction of invasive species. Long term monitoring of an ecosystem’s fish community, along with abiotic and biotic factors that influence the fish community, is crucial in establishing effective management strategies. Currently, numerous monitoring programs exist across the United States. However, a long term monitoring program of non-game and non-commercial fish community dynamics has not been established within Kentucky Lake in Western Kentucky. Preliminary sampling of the Kentucky Lake fish community was performed using boat electroshocking and surface trawling. Four embayments within Kentucky Lake were sampled with a randomized block experimental design. Within each embayment, 5 separate electrofishing samples were obtained from randomly chosen 500-meter shoreline segments; each sample utilizing 1 of 6 different randomly selected electroshocking wave forms. Two 10-minute surface trawling samples were also taken. Each collected specimen was identified to species and total length of each specimen was obtained. Concurrently with Hancock Biological Station’s bimonthly water quality/plankton surveys, this sampling protocol will be used for a long term fish monitoring program that will track catch per unit effort, body condition, and species diversity of non-game and non-commercial fish in Kentucky Lake.

Margaret Bourke-White: A Female of Firsts in the World of Photojournalism

Allie F. Douglass, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

New York born photographer Margaret Bourke-White propelled herself and her photographs through obstacles of war, financial depression and gender inequality throughout her career; becoming a pioneer in the photojournalism field in the eyes of both women and men. As the first female photographer at both LIFE and Fortune magazines, Bourke-White traveled across the globe, creating historical images documenting the Dust Bowl, the Korean War and concentration camps in Nazi Germany. Her iconic images of Mohandas Gandhi, World War II prisoners and drought victims during the Dust Bowl lead to an impactful presence of feminist strength in photojournalism during and after her life. The effects of Bourke-White’s accomplishments within the fields of mass communications and photojournalism are chronicled in detail throughout this historical academic poster.

Mineral Composition of Ash from Agricultural Waste Burning Using Bioburner 500.

Nicole E. States, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

1NICOLE STATES, CLAYTON KEISER, JASON ROBERTSON and BOMMANNA LOGANATHAN Department of Chemistry and Watershed Studies Institute, Murray State University and Hutson School of Agriculture, Murray State University, Murray, KY 42071.

Murray State University’s Hutson School of Agriculture has installed a new 500 kBTU/hr biomass burner (BB500 Bio-Burner, LEI Industries, Madisonville, KY) at the Farm Center during the Fall2014 to evaluate various crops and biomass materials as energy sources. Experimental burning of various feedstocks including wood chips, sorghum, equine manure, switchgrass and hemp samples were conducted during Spring 2015. Amount of feedstock burned ranged from 765 kg to 1255 kg. The amount of ash collected varied from 2 kg to 120kg. The mineral analysis in the ash samples were performed following the procedure of ASTM D3682. Oxides of Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Sr, Ba, Mn were measured. Results revealed that the mineral composition of ash samples varied with different feedstocks burned. Among various minerals measured, silicon dioxide had the highest amount per kg of ash (430-710g/kg) followed by calcium oxide (53-300g/kg) in almost all of the ash samples tested. Strontium oxide had the lowest amount (0.2-1.1g/kg). Among the various feedstocks, energy sorghum contained the highest amount (710g/kg) of silicon dioxide. Equine manure contained the highest amount (300g/kg of ash) of calcium oxide.

Simeon Booker: The Jackie Robinson of Journalism

Travin Hardy, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Simeon Booker was the first African-American reporter employed by The Washington Post newspaper and served as a pioneer for African-American journalists. Providing the public with groundbreaking news during the civil rights movement, Booker also served as the chief of Jet magazine for an astounding 51 years. Simeon Booker earned the respect of his peers early in his career with his consistent and honest coverage of events happening during the civil rights movement. Though Booker was a witness to several instances of racial violence and discrimination, he did not let this intimidate him and earned several awards for the many feats accomplished throughout his career. This journalist has contributed to journalism in many ways and did not retire until 2007 at the age of 88 years old. Though Booker is retired he still manages to leave us with another legendary contribution to journalism in his memoir “Shocking The Conscience”, which was recently published in 2013.

The Change in the Mortality Rate of the Canine Parvovirus

Kadie Kinnis, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

This paper attempts to give a detailed background into the Canine Parvovirus and discover if the mortality rate has increased, decreased, or stayed the same over the span of 5 years, from 2010-2015. The paper also attempts to explain the change in the mortality rate, is it because of better prevention, better treatments, or are owners recognizing symptoms in their pets sooner allowing for quicker treatments.

The Feasibility of Using Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine

Harmon Wilson, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

With discussions surrounding the legalization of cannabis for medicinal and recreational purposes gaining popularity within the United States, this presentation will look at the benefits and risks of using plants within the Cannabis genus in veterinary medicine. The viability of cannabis use as compared to drugs currently used to treat symptoms such as poor appetite and seizures will occur in order to determine if it is feasible for Cannabis sativa to gain a place in conventional veterinary practices. A focus on hemp, a variety of Cannabis sativa that produces less than 0.3% THC, will occur in light of the recent research permits granted within the state of Kentucky. Comparisons between cannabis administration to patients and the administration of current drugs of choice will be made on the basis of efficacy, cost, and known risks.

The God Father of Public Relations

Abdullah N. Alsuabaie, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The God father of Public Relations

Edward L. Bernyas is a pioneer and many scholars consider him as a father of Public Relation “PR”. Bernyas started his career work as a press agent before World War I. He also worked for an organization that was created by the U.S government to affect public opinions in the U.S to know the effect of American participation in the war at that time and the organization name was Creel Committee. Furthermore, Dernyas developed and created many techniques to shape public opinions. He thought deeply and came up with new idea of life’s work which he named “engineering public constant” and then he opened his office in New York, his office was specialized for Public Relation Consultant and that was in 1919. Moreover, at New York University he gave the first course on public relation, and later at the same year Bernyas published his first book on public relation and the name of the book is “Crystallizing Public Opinion”. In addition, Bernyas received an award from National Association for the Advancement of Colored People because of the successful campaign that he hosted, no violence was reported at that campaign against African-American. Bernyas’s campaign tried to focus on the importance of the combination between African-American and the Whites who live in the South. Bernyas also helped to change women attitude and freedom and that was when women were not allowed to smoke in public places. Dernyas was a professional attitude maker because of his efforts in the society.

THE ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

Topaz Prawito, Murray State University
iin Handayani, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

THE ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

Topaz A. Prawito 1) and Iin P. Handayani 2)

1) Honors College, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA

2) Hutson School of Agriculture, Murray State University, KY, USA

ABSTRACT

Corruption has been one of the longest lasting problems within a nation’s economy all around the word. There is a complex relationship between the socio-economic factors and corruption. Having both direct and indirect effects on the nation’s economy as a whole, it is important to analyze how such factors truly influence the business arena. Despite the constant progress towards globalization, there is a distinct contrast to the business culture of the Western world. As shown by Transparency International, developing countries tend to be ranked with low CPI (Corruption Perception Index) scores, which translates into high corruption level. Many theories focus on external factors as the main root of corrupt activities; the internal factors, however, are often overlooked. Internal factors embedded within a country, such as its inherent culture, level of consumerism, and other socio-economic factors turn the gears to constantly stimulate the inescapable corruption cycle in many developing nations, including Indonesia. Based on this study, Indonesia’s most visible internal factors of corrupt activities are the rising consumerism level and the widening income gap of the citizens. Together, they result in heavy social pressures to earn more income through questionable methods. In the process, corrupt activities tend to be more common in certain parts of Indonesia’s society.

Key words: Indonesia, socio-economic, corruption, consumerism, culture

Truth was his defense: The libel trial of John Peter Zenger

Nicholas Dixon, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

John Peter Zenger spent nearly eight months in jail starting in 1734 but still printed The New York Weekly Journal with the help of his wife while he was on trial for seditious libel. In those days, libel was anything that was against the government. It didn’t matter if the information was true or false. Controversy plagued Zenger’s trial from the beginning as William Cosby, the governor of New York, did everything he could to sabotage Zenger as Cosby was the centerpiece of most of Zenger’s editorials. Zenger was one of the first journalists to emphasize the importance of the media being the fourth estate and being a watchdog of the government.

"Women on Women Aggression" Predictors of a Belief in Double Standards

April D. Crabtree, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

"Woman on Woman Aggression": Predictors of Beliefs in Double Sex Standards

The presence of double standards is a topic that has been widely researched for the past several decades. Sexual double standards are based on the belief that sexual behaviors by women are viewed differently than when similar behaviors are exhibited by men. Early research stated that double standards were no longer much of an issue as seen in archival research by Crawford and Popp (2003). As they pulled research from previous decades, they concluded that double standards were not much of an issue in the 1970’s but resurfaced a decade later. This is not to say that double standards were not present, but rather that they were not as prevalent. Researchers have posed questions on where the idea of double standards originate or what causes them. Marks and Fraley (2006) theorized that confirmation bias plays a role in the double standards that many persons exhibit. They felt that anecdotal rather than theoretical evidence supported the idea of a double standard through confirmation bias. Other researchers have drawn on these ideas and have theorized that some women may contribute to confirmation bias with their outward behaviors and attitudes about themselves. Zalkman and Marks (2014) brought ambivalent sexism to the forefront of their studies. They felt that the goal of present research should be to determine whether and to what extent sexism among persons moderates the exhibition of the sexual double standard. Their work approaches double standard research with this new element of sexism and opens up new avenues in which to research.

By utilizing the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and a researcher created scale based on Paynter’s Sexual Double Standards Scale (2013), the question of if there is a positive correlation between the presence of a sexist attitude, either hostile or benevolent, and higher levels of a sexual double standard was able to be tested. It is our hope that this will further the research of Zalkman and Marks (2014) and shed light on newly hypothesized areas regarding double standards, where they are formed, and how they shape our perceptions. The research looked at the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1988), Belief in a Just World Scale (BJW; Dalbert, 1998), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO; Sidanious & Pratto, 1999), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983). These scales allowed exploration into alternate factors that may contribute to the belief in double standards. With a better understanding of double standards and sexism, we can better understand other social issues such as bias, prejudice, and intolerance.

The current research project focused on college age women and the interactions between levels of sexist beliefs and the presence of a sexual double standards against other women. Further research projects will follow to include a larger age population and will include men. It was hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between high levels of sexism and the belief in double standards among individuals. We also examined the relationship between double standards and sexism with the subscales hostile and benevolent. We also looked at the aforementioned variables that were collected to look for additional correlations that may be present. The overall model is significant F (3, 70) = 6.81, p < .001, R2 = .23. When we controlled for personality variables benevolent sexism and personal distress predicted double standard beliefs. However our end finding found that hostile sexism was the only significant predictor (B= .25, t= 2.01, p= .049), personal distress was not significant (B = .18, t = 1.47, p = .146), nor was benevolent sexism (B = .15, t = 1.21, p = .232).

Thursday, April 21st
12:30 PM

Bioenergy Corp Production and Combustion in Agriculture

Vaughn T. Reed, Murray State University
Caleb Brannon, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:30 PM - 1:30 PM

Biomass, vegetative waste from energy crops such as switch grass and sorghum, is a key input for transforming the face of energy and agriculture for the future of Kentucky, the nation, and the world. The purpose of this experiment at Murray State University using the Bio-Burner 500 unit—BB-500— from L.E.I products in Madisonville, KY, was to evaluate the efficiency of a combustion-based energy converter and boiler using various biomass materials, along with providing some heat to The Equine Center at Murray State University. Loose forms of switch grass, tobacco stalks, miscanthus, equine waste, wood shavings and mixtures of these fuels were burned over a 24 hr period in outdoor temperatures below 68°F. Factors including burn and ash weight, ash clinkers, fan and fuel speed, moisture levels of material, and BTU measurements were recorded to assist in determining the success of each burn trial and overall energy balance of the system. Upon analysis of the data, the biomass with the most productive burn proved to be the wood shavings. The least productive burns proved to be the cellulosic biomass, which included miscanthus and switchgrass, and the equine waste. The grasses burned less effectively than the woody materials, however, it required less material. Equine waste, while plentiful in our area, produces high ash amounts, and has a high affinity of making ash clinkers. Wood shavings and tobacco stalks burned more effectively, and less labor intensity, however, more material was required. The research conducted in this study can provide Murray State and the scientific community insightful information about future applications of bioenergy.

4:30 PM

Don’t Keep a Good Man Down: Intervention Strategies for Common Causes of Anger and Aggression

Samantha N. Wright, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Effects of White-nose Syndrome on the Bat Community in Land Between the Lakes

Jordan Robbins, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Efficacy of an oral joint supplement in exercising horses

Maggie Nawa, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Finding the Truth: An Examination into the Use of Rhetoric in Thucydides

Eryn Pritchett, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Influence of Authority on Attitude Change due to Vicarious Dissonance

Kendrick Settler Jr., Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Quick AND Satisfied? The Effects of Positive Feedback on Task Completion

Rain M. Carroll, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Stress Mitigation Techniques in Shelter Cats: Effectiveness and Usage

Christina Sherman, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

The Evil that Men Do: Genocide in the Twentieth Century

Tracey Newport, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

The relationship between canine nasal length and second-hand smoke cotinine levels

Sierra Wilson, Murray State University
Terry Derting, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Transnational Influences Of Early Jesuit Scholars and Explorers in the New World from 1560-1700

Lydia K. Biggs Ms., Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM