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2016
Monday, April 18th
10:00 AM

Donors Choose Grant Project

Kelsey F. Bennett, Murray State University
Tamara J. Berry, Murray State University
Caleb M. Burcks, Murray State University

Tennessee Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Education in the Third Reich

Maegann L. Hardison, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Imperialist Correlations Between the Kaiserreich and the Third Reich

Laura Guebert, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Insta-Argument: Argumentative Writing Through a New Literacies Approach

Devan A. Wiser, Murray State University

Tennessee Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Through the use of new literacies, participants will engage in the beginning process of teaching argumentative writing through an Instagram graphic organizer.

The Effects of Denazification on Education in West Germany

Helen Beckert, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Women in Weimar: Graphic Gearings

Sarah E. Hendren, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

12:00 PM

Acuity Based Nurse Staffing

Allyssa M. Johnson, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Assessing the impacts of human-induced degradation on stream ecosystem function

Carla Rothenbuecher, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Bedside Report

Mallory N. Maxwell Ms., Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Bilingual Language Distance Predicts Dementia Rating

Morgan Owens, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Carbon Sink to Carbon Pool; The Brazilian Amazon

Ashtan H. Williams, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Development of Autonomous Crazyflie Drone

Luke Kamrath, Murray State University
Shafe S. Boles, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Different teaching strategies of environmental education and how effective they are are promoting environmentally conscious action in students

Grecia White, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Dressed to Impress (or Is She?): Judgments of Attraction Based on Attire

Emily C. Rohrer, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Effects of Various Land Uses in Stewart County, TN on Selected Soil Properties

Tanner R. McIntyre Mr., Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Efficiency of Discharge Criteria

Kaylee B. Williams Mrs, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

End-of-Life Decision Making: Communication between Nurses and Families

Elizabeth A. Landewee, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content

Gunner B. Decker, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Evaluation of Physical Soil Quality Indicators in Natural vs Agricultural Ecosystems

Mary G. Derting Miss, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Fall prevention

Cody Durbin, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

During clinical shift at Baptist Health Paducah Hospital on the CCU floor the question asked was, what needs to be researched? After watching the charge nurse help patients all day I asked her what she thought needed to be researched. After thinking for a while she went on to tell me about how they are getting hit pretty hard on infections so there is no need for more research on that. After that she went on to tell me that their fall prevention protocol was lacking pretty badly. They do a fall risk assessment and based on the number decide what their chances of a fall is. They then give them fall risk bracelets and bed alarms. She said the bed alarms they have a pretty outdated and don’t work half the time they are used. There had to be newer research on better fall prevention. There protocol is lacking something that keeps the patients from not getting hurt. T It seems like it is just there for the nurse so they know that the patient is at risk for falling. This doesn’t help prevent a fall for the patient. Plus some nurses can’t get to the alarm right away so by the time they go to check the alarm it is too late. After doing some research a few articles about patient teaching and involving the patient in fall prevention popped up. The problem with the current policy is that it is lacking new evidence based practice.

Improving vital signs documentation by implementing aide post conferences and simulation education

Meagan Frazier, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to research the most effective ways to facilitate improvement in timely communication of vital signs.

Background: The rate of healthcare assistant (HCA) or nurse’s aide turnover is a wide-spread issue causing nursing staff to have to compensate while new HCAs attain the experience to function efficiently on the floor (Weiner et al. as cited in Howe, 2014). HCAs are frequently the personnel who gather vital signs which nurses use to assess the status of patients. In order for nurses to make accurate assessments of patients, vital signs must be accurately recorded and on-time, and if a vital sign is critical HCAs must be able to interpret the need to notify the nurse immediately. Currently, research does not support that new HCAs have the training to do these things (Mok, Wang, & Liaw, 2015).

Methods: A search was made among Ebsco, Google Scholar, Medline, Pubmed, and CinHal for the most recent research and studies on education in nursing aides and vital signs reporting.

Results: Post conferences and scenario training as well as virtual and mannequin based simulation were effective in improving HCA education and reporting issues to nurses

Conclusions: Improvements can be made to HCA vital signs reporting and efficiency by incorporating scenario and simulation

Isotopic Niche Analysis of Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad

Dalton D. Lebeda, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Land Management Effects on Selected Properties of Silt Loam Soil in Tennessee, USA

Kang-Chi Wu, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Media Representations of Offenders in Televison Series "Law and Order"

Darcy L. Sullivan, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Medication Administration Interruptions

Brianna R. Oexmann, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Medication Errors Due to Exhaustion

TaKeyla S. Pewitte, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Medication Reconciliation: Preventing Errors and Improving Patient Outcomes

Amanda S. Boren, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Modernity and its effects on over-medication in health care

Shelby Kathleen Gray, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Multidisciplinary Rounds and the Effect on Patient Care

Tori Twidwell, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Musical Preschoolers: A Music Curriculum for Two-year-olds

Maurice Hanley, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

NG Tube Verification: A Safer Approach

Daniel Best, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

This presentation will educate viewers on the proper use of a nasogastric tube as well as recommendations for future technology.

Non-Opioid Chronic Pain Management

Mary K. Houser, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Non-opioid chronic pain management treatments were researched. Specifically, exercise, cognitive behavioral therapy, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed little to no efficacy in relieving complicated chronic pain. However, when a biopsychosocial approach was used, better pain management and coping was reported. This approach addresses multiple aspects of patient needs, consistent with Nursing Theorist Betty Neuman’s System Model which was used to guide research. Therefore, a biopsychosocial approach to chronic unrelieved pain management is recommended.

Noninvasive Portable Clincal Devices

Amee M. Patel, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The objective of evidence based practices is to ensure that patients receive the best medical attention to promote optimal health and wellness. Despite this aim, consistent implementation of evidence based practices can be challenging, especially as it relates to the routine disinfection of noninvasive portable clinical devices. The overall purposes of this project is to increase compliance with the disinfection policy and reduce potential cross-contamination from pathogenic microbes between patients and noninvasive portable clinical items.

Nurse Residency Program

Kristin A. Hobbs, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

PAM­1 and autophagy pathways intersect to regulate gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

Ashley N. Munie, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Patient Care Equipment as a Pathway for Infection

Laura Hawkins, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

For this research paper the question posed was “Is there a hospital procedure that needs to be updated?" To answer that question data was collected from numerous nursing journals and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention to analyze the need for better hygiene of the equipment that comes into contact with the patient. Some of the items that were discussed in the research include: stethoscopes, blood pressure cuffs, thermometers, keyboards, phones, bedside tables, electrocardiogram (ECG) wires, and lab coats. From the evidence based practice research articles, it was evident that more focus needs to be placed on the daily cleaning and disinfection of equipment that receives frequent use to assess patients. It was evident after being in the facility on two separate occasions that a need for further education and reinforcement on proper disinfectant practices was needed. Some related interventions that should be included are reinforcement of proper cleaning techniques of patient care equipment on shift by shift basis, not just when the patient is being discharged or transferred. Another intervention that should be addressed is how to use correct cleaning and disinfecting products based on the patient’s needs, diagnosis, and the contamination level of the equipment. Another important factor is to consider the type of material that makes up the equipment when selecting a disinfectant solution. With all of these aspects in mind and also the concept to make cleaning of patient care equipment more routine in daily patient care is a critical topic that needs to be addressed, policies changed, and interventions implemented.

Peripheral Intravenous Site Rotation

Victoria A. Board, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

My poster presentation is a research analysis of whether to rotate the peripheral IV site every 72-96 hours or when clinically indicated. The research supported rotating the site only when clinically indicated because the risk for complications generally occur within the first 24 hours of having an IV. More research needs to be conducted to prove this produces the best patient outcomes but it currently supports clinically indicated.

Post-Operative Vital Signs

Kelsey N. Beach, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Abstract:

Throughout this project, the emphasis and research was centered on the importance of vital sign monitoring of patients. The importance of vital signs is emphasized due to the pivotal role played in indicating patient clinical status, and the wide range of information vital signs provide for clinical professionals. Research aspects that were addressed when looking into the protocol for post-operative vital sign monitoring were: a specific timing schedule, whose responsibility this is, and a possible way to implement timeliness in carrying this task out. The consequences of infrequent and inadequate vital signs were also a concern when looking at the vital sign protocol.

Predictors of Convenient Sample Behaviors

Heith C. Chandler, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Preventing / Reducing CVC Infections

Desiree F. Baxter, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Preventing Blood Culture Contamination

Brooke L. Deal, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Prevention of Psychosis

Magen Pollock, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Put Your Shirt on: An Examination of Provocative versus Casual Clothing on First Impressions

Katelyn Geilear, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Quality Improvement Through Clinical Alarm Management

Heather R. Raley, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Clinical alarm monitoring technology is used widely throughout healthcare institutions. They are intended to alert health care providers of potential clinically significant events that require intervention with the patient. Clinical alarm systems are designed for high sensitivity, which can lead to frequent false and nonactionable alarms. The intermittent noise and resulting mechanical hum in the hospital auditory environment leads to staff desensitization, or “alarm fatigue,” and causes the staff to miss, ignore, and even disable the alarm signals. If clinical alarms are not properly managed, they can compromise patient safety. It is important for health care institutions to develop a systematic and coordinated approach to clinical alarm system management. Effective implementation of a clinical alarm safety policy within the institution can shorten the length in hospital stay, improve the health outcomes of patients, and lead to measurable quality improvement in patient care.

Reducing Post-Operative Infection Readmissions by Discharge Edcuation

Kayla DeVore, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Reducing rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections

Hillary Lane, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Purpose: The purpose of this project was to research different methods for decreasing catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients.

Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are very common in the hospital setting. These infections are very costly to the hospital and compromise patient safety by increasing rates of morbidity and mortality. In order for CAUTI rates to decrease, nurses and physicians must become more aware of the presence of catheters in patients.

Method: A search was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and Google Scholar for current research studies regarding the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

Results: The implementation of reminder systems, both physical and virtual, significantly reduced the number of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalized patients.

Conclusions: Rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infections can be decreased by executing paper and computer-based reminder systems to help alert nurses and physicians of the presence of catheters in their patients.

Reduction of Central Line Infections by Using Chlorhexidine-impregnated Dressings

Kaitlyn C. Brooks, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Purpose: The purpose of this evidence-based project was to discover an effective way to decrease central-line associated bloodstream infections in patients within a hospital setting.

Background: Central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are primary bloodstream infections in patients that had a central line in place within 48 hours before the development of the infection. CLABSI are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and effective methods for their prevention are needed.

Method: A search was conducted using CINAHL, Google Scholar, and Ovid Nursing Database for current research experiments and meta-analysis regarding the reduction of central-line infections.

Results: The use of Chlorhexidine-impregnated Dressings significantly reduced CLABSI rates. With chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings, there is a significant benefit for prevention of catheter colonization, the adverse effects were also rare and minor.

Conclusions: Research has proven chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings to lead prevention measures in the reduction on central line infections. Central-line hospital policies could be enhanced by adding the 3M Tegaderm CHG dressing to clinical practice. Hospitals also benefit from these special dressings by saving money from the cost of buying the dressings and the care it would take to treat a patient with an infection caused by a central line.

Sequential Compression Devices Versus Graduated Compression Stockings

Brooke Heisner, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

This evidence-based practice research compares the outcomes of sequential compression devices and graduated compression stockings on the prevention of blood-clot related complications in the hospital.

Size Structure, Age, Growth and Spawning Periodicity of Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in Kentucky Lake, Kentucky

Allison DeRose, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Spinal Trauma: Movement & Immobilization

Melinda Edwards, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/allenedwards/Desktop/MSU/SPRING%2016/NUR%20412/EBP/POSTER.doc

Minimizing movement in the cervical spine of an immobilized patient remains a big factor in the comfort and outcome of patients with spinal injuries. The log roll technique and the lift and slide technique are two common methods of moving immobilized patient, but the questions arises, which is better? In comparing the two methods, studies were done that tested both the lift and slide and log roll techniques. Research shows the lift and slide method provides the most stability with the least head motion.

Testing the Relationship Between Land Use and the Presence of a Lethal Amphibian Disease

Melanie Torres, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The Bed Bath Versus the Bag Bath in Patient and Nursing Outcomes

Skyler K. Frye, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The effects of the fungus Beauvaria sp. on the cave cricket, Hadenoecus subterraneus

Christina N. Walker, Murray State University
Derrick J. Jent, University of Florida
Claire A. Fuller, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The Efficacy of Intravenous Acetaminophen

Lindsee Lyles, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Tiresome 12 VS. Focused 8

Sydney J. Potts, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

When looking for a job, nurses have the opportunity to work 8 or 12 hour shifts. In todays generation 12 hour shifts are becoming more of a trend with job openings, and 8 hour shifts are becoming a thing of the past. After reviewing many evidence based research articles, the 8 hour shifts we once had, should no longer be put on the back burner. Research is stating that in those last 4 hours of a 12-hour work day, more errors are occurring, and patient safety is becoming a concern.

Tri-colored Bat Roost Tree Use and Movement Patterns Following White-nose Syndrome in Western Kentucky

Katherine Schaefer, Murray State University
Terry Derting, Murray State University
Jordan Robbins, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

Selin Hong, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Where is the Justice? A Critical View of the Supreme Court

Christopher J. Mahan, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Whiskey Tango Foxtrot: Militaristic video games on nationalistic attitudes and violence

David I. Crittendon, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Zooplankton Community in the Delaware Bay During Summer: Spatial Distribution and Environmental Correlates

Nathan A. Tillotson, Murray State University

Large Ballroom, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 2:00 PM

Tuesday, April 19th
10:00 AM

An Analysis of the International Expansion of Burger King

Candice Miller, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

International expansion has been the focus of many U.S. based companies for the past couple decades, furthering the trend of globalization in today's world. The fast food industry in particular has taken advantage of international opportunities. Burger King's expansion efforts are of particular interest due to recent developments for the franchiser, such as the company's new owner, 3G Capital, the merger with Canada's Tim Hortons, and negotiations by CEO Daniel Schwarz to increase Burger King's presence in choice foreign markets, such as China and Brazil. However, to be successful in their efforts and remain a competitor in the ever growing global market, Burger King will need to overcome a number of obstacles.

Analysis of The Coca-Cola Company

Franziska Renz, Murray State University
Julian Vogel, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The research paper analyzes The Coca-Cola Company using data from 2012 to 2014.

A brief overview of the history of the company is given as well as its nowadays markets and its most important competitors are identified. The company was founded in 1892 and operates in the US-American industries for soda production, syrup and flavoring production, juice production, and bottled water production. The most important competitors of The Coca-Cola Company in these industries are PepsiCo Inc., Dr. Pepper Snapple Group Inc., Monster Beverage Corp. and Nestle S.A..

Furthermore, a SWOT analysis is conducted. The company uses its strengths, such as its strong network of associates and partners, its high market share in all its industries, as well as its high level of innovation in its product portfolio and marketing to maintain a stable and competitive position. However, internal weaknesses of the company such as its high dependency of Berkshire Hathaway, its involvement in three major lawsuits and its current strategy change are detected. Also, the company is able to exploit current and future opportunities, namely sinking input prices as well as changing industry landscapes and demand structures. Though, the company faces a highly competitive environment with rising and unpredictable input prices as well as volatile demand.

Moreover, a financial analysis is conducted based on the financial ratios of the company in comparison to the ratios of its most important competitors and its own past performance. The financial analysis unveils that the company could perform better in some areas such as its degree of financing or its P/E ratio. However, due to its excellent profitability and sound financial standing, the company is attractive for investors.

Besides, the intrinsic common stock value of the company is calculated to depict the accurate valuation of the company at the stock market.

Additionally, both the income statement and the balance sheet for 2015 are forecasted based on the financial data of previous years, its strategy announcements and current developments.

Finally, recommendations are given for the management of the company as well as potential and current investors.

Austenesque: A Study of Free Indirect Speech in Jane Austen's Works and its Benefits as a Style of Narration

Emily A. Miller, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Put Your Shirt on: An Examination of Provocative versus Casual Clothing on First Impressions

Katelyn Geilear, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

It is astounding how much information someone can gather about a person from a quick glance. We form first impressions of others based on a number of things, such as their appearance, demeanor, and other characteristics we can gather from a glance or two, and form impressions of a person’s personality, character, intentions, and motivations based on these factors. This can happen in mere tenths of a second. My research looked at how people form first impressions based on a person’s attire and gender.

Students with Communication Disorders in Kentucky Higher Education: Challenges and Resources

Ardee R. Tebeal, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Quality resources for the academic and social success of university students with communication disorders are necessary. Seeking to promote success in students with these disorders are programs at Eastern Kentucky, Western Kentucky, and Murray State. Current literature on these disorders gives insight on the unique skill-sets and experiences of students with communication disorders. Following the included research, the programs from each respective university found to be the most successful in the aforementioned areas are Eastern Kentucky’s Speech-Language-Hearing Clinic, Western Kentucky’s Communications Disorder Clinic, and Murray State University’s Student Disability Services.

2:00 PM

Finding the Truth: An Examination into the Use of Rhetoric in Thucydides

Eryn Pritchett, Murray State University

Tennessee Room, Curris Center

2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

For centuries, scholars have looked to Thucydides as truth--a factual and accurate account of the Peloponnesian War--due to his thorough use of critical analysis and logical deduction. Unlike his predecessor, Herodotus, Thucydides dodged the critical and literary analysis that has plagued Herodotus for years. However, in the past few decades historians realized that Thucydides is far more than facts on paper. This research project will show that Thucydides use of Athenian rhetoric transforms his work from that of historical accuracy into a "possession for all time," redefining the way other historians would construct their own narrative. (Thucydides, 1.22.1) Thucydides is clear throughout his entire history that he is planning to be remembered. In fact, the beginning of his book is filled with concern about his eternal resting place in the minds and hearts of those who will come after him. His work is not merely a collection of truths and date-to-date happenings during the Peloponnesian War, as once thought. This magnificent work was artfully crafted into something that would surpass fact and transcend truth; thanks to the rhetoricians who came before him. By examining his use of speeches, and the format of these orations as well as the book itself, we can see how influential Thucydides is to modern history. By treasuring the work of Thucydides for its rhetorical influence, his impact on historical writing can be better understood.

Kunstler at the Courthouse: What Happens When Sixties Activism and Small Town Politics Collide?

Wesley S. Bolin, Murray State University

Tennessee Room, Curris Center

2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

William Kunstler (1919-1995) called himself a "radical lawyer" and came to national prominence through his controversial work defending everyone from the Mississippi Freedom Riders, Martin Luther King, Angela Davis, and the "Chicago Seven" to Lenny Bruce, Jack Ruby, and John Gotti. In 1971 he was contracted to speak at Lovett Auditorium by Murray State's SGA as part of their "Insight" lecture series. Murray State's Board of Regents fought back against Kunstler's upcoming visit because of his political beliefs and the controversy that often accompanied his public appearances. Weeks of press coverage of the very public conflict between Murray State's administration and the student body followed. In the end members of the Murray community interceded and secured a location for Kunstler to speak - not on the stage of Lovett Auditorium but instead on Murray's Court Square. Kunstler's visit to Murray is a fascinating incident which brings to light issues of academic freedom, the relationship between "town and gown," and the perspective of a small, rural college town on one of the most iconic and infamous figures of 1960s and 1970s activism.

Weight of the World: United States involvement in the Bosnian Crisis and the Bosnian Genocide

Tracey Newport, Murray State University

Tennessee Room, Curris Center

2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, states behind the Iron curtain underwent a change from communist nations. The founder of one such state, Josep Tito, died in 1980. While the Soviet Union stood the republic of Yugoslavia stayed together as a nation. Once the Soviet Union collapsed it did not take long for Yugoslavia to fall into chaos. The cleavages in the society became apparent as different nationalistic ideologies emerged with several different parts of the nation declaring independence from Yugoslavia. During this time Serbian nationalism grew in the various portions of Yugoslavia that had broken off as they sought to create a Serbian nation. The violence that erupted during this crisis lead to genocidal massacres of the Bosniak Muslims in the former territories of Yugoslavia. The crisis that unfolded became one of the earliest tests for America in their dominant international role as the sole great power of the world. America’s response to the Bosnian reflected their unwillingness to fully accept the mantle of the sole great power in the world. After 45 years of working against communist influences in the world, the United States fatigue from their international policy hampered their resolve in addressing the situation unfolding in the former Yugoslavian states. Because of the fatigue from 45 years of perpetual military readiness and reluctance to accept the role as sole supreme power in the world; the United States actions to halt the massacres in the former Yugoslavia came as tepid and apathetic response until the United states fully accepted their role as the sole supreme power.

3:30 PM

Au Pays - An Examination of Culture, Identity, and Retirement

Bryant Powell, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:30 AM

Author and public intellectual Tahar Ben Jelloun’s 2009 novel Au Pays is a stunning, introspective work that delves into the questions that are essential to the immigrant experience. As a Moroccan-French immigrant, Ben Jelloun is able to examine these ideas through the lens of his persona experience, making his characters both honest and relatable. Mohammad, another Moroccan immigrant and the protagonist of Au Pays, identifies himself as a proud worker, a loving father, and a devout Muslim, but each of these identities is thrown into question as he tries to find his place in “Lafrance.” As retirement looms ever-closer, Mohammad decides that he does not wish to be buried in the French ground, and thus returns to his native Morocco. However, going back to his homeland forces him to reexamine his memories and face uncomfortable conclusions about his culture and himself.

Loose Triggers: Tackling Uncomfortable Topics in the Language Classroom

Kathryn E. Granstaff, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:30 AM

Loose Triggers: Tackling Uncomfortable Topics in the Language Classroom

Disparadores sueltos: abordando temas incómodos en el aula de idiomas

The use or omission of trigger warnings in the classroom setting is a controversial topic. Should trigger warnings be used before teaching uncomfortable topics such as religious beliefs, the impacts of violence, home-life or graphic descriptions? How does one deal with these topics in the classroom? While some research has been conducted in an attempt to find an answer to these questions, there have been no consistent answers or established policies for educators to turn to. The gap in this research has delayed the construction of potentially enlightening lesson plans as well as prohibited further real world learning for students. This project will focus specifically on the language classroom and the challenges and cultural implications that arise when dealing with uncomfortable topics. This research will fill the gap by conducting surveys with students and teachers and experimenting with different teaching styles and lessons that encourage creativity, participation, cultural awareness and critical thinking. This research project will serve as an opportunity to discover new ways in which to reestablish that the language classroom is an area of enlightenment for subject matters of all types as well as provide an outlet for educators so that they are encouraged not to fear tackling uncomfortable subjects in the classroom.

Kathryn Granstaff

Double Major:

Secondary English Education & P-12 Spanish Teaching Certification

Class of 2016

Research Advisor: Tanya Romero-González

The Death of François Vatel: A Symbol of Darkness in the Courts of Seventeenth-Century France

Kristin L. Critchfield, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:30 AM

The Death of François Vatel: A Symbol of Darkness in the Courts of Seventeenth-Century France

La mort de François Vatel:Un emblème du mal dans les cours en France pendant le dix-septième siècle

The seventeenth century is known as the “Grand Siècle” of France, a time period in which many great laws, movements, political figures, and works of art emerged. The “Grand Siècle” was dominated by the aura of the Sun King, Louis XIV (ruled 1643-1714), who, at Versailles, had put France at the center of the world. He had extensive connections, especially with the Eastern world. Chinese fashion even influenced the dress within the court of Versailles. Inside the courts such as Louis XIV’s, and those modeled after his court, there were men who were responsible for maintaining the extravagance and glory of the courts. These men, called maîtres d’hôtel were essentially responsible for managing what went on behind the scenes of the court, whether it be coordinating decorations or cooking the meals for a party. François Vatel was a maître d’hôtel, employed by Nicholas Fouquet and the Prince de Condé, whose death remains, to this day, much of a mystery. In this paper, the death of François Vatel is discussed in the context of letters by Madame de Sévigné and the film Vatel directed by Roland Joffé. His death is also contrasted with the bright reputation of the courts in seventeenth-century France, and brings up the question of a hidden darkness within those very courts. Ultimately, this essay suggests that Vatel’s death was a symbol of darkness in the seemingly sound court system of Louis XIV’s France.

Kristin Critchfield

Major in French and Francophone Studies, Minor in English Literature (Class of 2016)

Research Advisor: Dr. Therese Saint Paul

The Melody of Learning

Zuleyka Valdes, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:30 AM

The Melody of Learning

La melodía del aprendizaje

Music opens numerous doors of creativity and enlightenment when combined with our cognitive development skills. The question is how music can enhance the teaching of foreign languages and other subjects in the classrooms. This paper explores the importance of using music in ways that can be combined with traditional teaching methods. Music can be used as a tool to create more profound and impactful ways in students’ learning. This paper will examine the existing scientific studies about how music impacts cognitive development. We will examine how the various regions of the brain are activated when a person is working on music, mathematics, and languages. Throughout this research, I intend to prove how music can have a positive impact in learning. Furthermore, the essay will take into account how music may benefit students with different learning styles within the classroom. Not only will I be consulting existing research on this topic but I will also take into account the results of a survey that I recently conducted. Also, my personal experience will inform me further on this matter. With each of these pieces of supporting evidence, I will determine the results connected to how music can enhance the teaching of foreign languages.

Zuleyka Valdés

Double Major:

Math Education Grades 5-9 & Spanish P-12 Certification

(Class of 2017)

Research Advisor: Dr. Elena Picech

The Nail That Sticks Up: An Analysis of Japanese Identity

Cassandra M. Nutt Ms., Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:30 AM

出る釘:日本の同一性の解析

The Nail That Sticks Up: An Analysis of Japanese Identity

This presentation examines the conflict between the two Identities that each Japanese person possesses. These are the true identity, and the identity projected by a Japanese person in order to conform to society’s expectations. This examination is conducted in the context of the novel The Broken Commandment by Shimazaki Tōeson. This project will analyze the main character, and other character’s interactions with each other, their inner monologue, and the policies created by society. These examples will show the conflicts and resolutions in balancing the two identities, as well as connect this conflict/resolution to the larger narrative of Japanese identity dissonance, which continues even in modern Japanese society.

Cassandra Nutt, Japanese and English (class of 2016)

Research Advisor: Fusae Ekida

Wednesday, April 20th
9:00 AM

A Biological Survey of Sloan's Crossing Pond, Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky

Christiane M. Soldo Ms., Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Sloan’s Crossing Pond (SCP) is a popular visitor attraction in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP) that was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) in 1939. In recent years, the pond has begun to shallow and fill with sediment. The National Park Service (NPS) is tasked with preserving landscapes in their pre-Colombian state. However, NPS is obligated to preserve all natural artifacts that are greater than 50 years old, such as Sloan’s Pond that was constructed by the CCC. Furthermore, the park service is required to provide recreation and entertainment to visitors. These conflicting management goals make it difficult for park officials to decide what action to take in regards to the pond.

In order to help park managers with their decision, we began a biological survey of SCP and two nearby ponds. Our goal was to determine whether SCP provided a unique habitat not seen anywhere else in MCNP, or if there was a high level of functional redundancy between SCP and other ponds found within the park.

We surveyed Sloan’s Crossing Pond, Joppa and Quarry ponds. We were limited by permit requirements and had to rely on observational sampling techniques, such as camera trapping and audio recording. We did not find any indication that Sloan’s Crossing Pond provided a unique habitat in the park. We will continue our survey throughout the spring and summer and extend it to more ponds throughout MCNP. We hope to use this preliminary data to guide our future research methods.

Key Words: survey, pond, camera trap, Kentucky, Mammoth Cave National Park, audio recording, observation, forest inventory, management, preliminary data

A First Look at the Population Demographics of Silver Carp in Kentucky Lake

Allison M. DeRose, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Analysis of Forest Structure Among Management Types at Land Between the Lakes, Kentucky

Miranda Thompson, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Characteristics of roost tree use by the tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) post- white-nose syndrome in the Four Rivers watershed

Katherine Schaefer, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

The tri-colored bat is undergoing severe declines across its range due to white nose syndrome, a fungal disease causing massive bat mortality in eastern North America. Our objective was to determine distinguishing characteristics of roost trees used by tri-colored bats so their roost needs can be considered in management plans. We mist-netted for tri-colored bats at Land Between the Lakes and Clarks River in western Kentucky. We attached a radio transmitter to adult bats. We tracked six bats to their day roosts for 1-12 days. Habitat data were collected at 19 roost trees and at randomly selected trees in the area for comparison. Our initial data showed that tri-colored bats use roost trees within a relatively small area. The greatest distance moved between successive roosts was 207.8 m, with an average distance between roosts of 68.9 m. Bats remained within 2.5 km of their original capture site. All roosting bats were located in the foliage of live trees. Tri-colored bats may not select roost trees at random. Bats were observed roosting in 10 different species of tree, with the most commonly selected species being Carya tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt. and Liquidambar styraciflua L. (37% and 16% of roost trees, respectively). In contrast with the roost trees selected, the most abundant species among the randomly selected trees were Quercus alba L. and Acer saccharum Marshall. Management needs of tri-colored bats likely differ from those of other declining bat species which have preference for trees in mid-decay stages.

Distinguishing between Eurasian Wild boar Hybrids and Feral Swine Using Molecular and Morphological Analyses

Jason Matthews, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Effects of Omnivory on Trophic Cascades

Donald J. Benkendorf, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Examining the effects of riparian disturbance on litter decomposition in a degraded stream

Carla Rothenbuecher, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Habitat Modeling of a Disease Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Melanie Torres, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

The impact of extirpation and reintroduction of a size-structured predator on trophic cascades

Robin Baker, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

The influence of competition and soil on the distribution of two potentially dominant bunchgrass species: Wiregrass (Aristida stricta) and little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)

James C. Groover, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

The Relationship of Head Morphology and Diet among Three Sympatric Watersnake Species

Micah W. Perkins Mr., Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Using Stable Isotope Analysis to Quantify Isotopic Niche Overlap between Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad

Dalton D. Lebeda, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 4:00 PM

Kentucky Lake is the largest impoundment east of the Mississippi River and is located on the Tennessee River in western Kentucky. The reservoir has a diverse fishery consisting of many fish species that prey upon native planktivorous Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum and Threadfin Shad D. petenense. Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix are an invasive planktivorous fish species that invaded Kentucky Lake in 2004 and data suggests successful establishment and a reproducing population. Previous studies on the Illinois River have suggested that Silver Carp are competing for prey resources with native fish species including Gizzard Shad. Therefore, diet overlap and competition between Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad in Kentucky Lake is a major concern to biologists and fishermen. For our study, we used δ15N and δ13C isotopic signatures to perform niche analysis and to quantify isotopic niche overlap. Fish were sampled using: cast nets, gill nets, and boat electrofishing. We found non-significant isotopic niche overlap between Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad in Kentucky Lake. In conclusion, Silver Carp and Gizzard Shad appear to have a low potential for competition. However, if Silver Carp populations increase, and resources become depleted, then the potential for competition may increase and result in ecosystem effects.

9:30 AM

Depictions of Witchcraft: Stereotypes vs. Reality

Chloe Chaplin, Murray State University

Cumberland Room, Curris Center

9:30 AM - 10:30 AM

The British Monarchy & Religious Diversity

Sawyer R. Rambo, Murray State University

Cumberland Room, Curris Center

9:30 AM - 10:30 AM

The Early Tudors and Constructing English Empire

Rebecca Dames, Murray State University

Cumberland Room, Curris Center

9:30 AM - 10:30 AM

The Glorious Revolution

William T. Hudson, Murray State University

Cumberland Room, Curris Center

9:30 AM - 10:30 AM

10:00 AM

A Comprehensive Survey of 3-D Graphics Software and File Formats

Kendra A. Kennedy, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

This research project is a comparative survey of various 3-D graphics software and 3-D graphics file formats, with the intention of discerning which software and file formats are superior in individual categories including, but not limited to: cost effectiveness, range of uses, user-friendliness, visual quality, and file size, as well as best overall. My initial research for the 3-D graphics software will include looking up the qualitative and quantitative aspects of each software including: primary uses, total cost, overall quality, popularity, user-friendliness, and availability of learning materials. My beginning research for the file formats will similarly include consumer imperative attributes such as: software compatibility, flexibility of usage, file size, and visual quality. After compiling and analyzing important attributes of 3-D graphics software and file-formats, I will compose a comparative grading algorithm for individual categories, such as those mentioned above, and combine the results of those grades into adjustable composite scores for each of the software and file-formats respectively. The composite scoring algorithm will allow alterations for higher and lower desired attributes, such as cost for a student, or user-friendliness for a 3-D graphics neophyte.

Attitudes Predicting Patriotism and Nationalism

David I. Crittendon, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Two important parts to national identification are patriotism (positively identifying with one’s own country) and nationalism (i.e., contempt for countries other than one’s own; Citrin, Wong, & Duff, 2001; Williams, Foster, & Krohn, 2008). Although these two constructs are closely interrelated, they are separate. Of particular interest is whether one can predict increased nationalism or patriotism, with personality variables, (i.e., core conservatism and smugness) as well as other related attitudes, such as attitudes toward internationalism, civil liberties, a world government, and desire for punishment. The current study examined the relationship between other related attitudes to patriotism and nationalism. Specifically, we examined smugness, attitudes toward global welfare, civil liberties, world government beliefs, military approval, and desire for punishment. The usable sample provided empirical evidence for researching attitudes that may contribute to higher patriotism or nationalism. A series of correlations indicated relationships between the variables. Additionally, a multiple regression indicated patriotism is significantly predicted by negative attitudes toward civil liberties and a world government, increased smugness, and increased conservativism, F(6, 67) = 23.04, p < .001, R2= .67. However, nationalism was only predicted by increased smugness, F (6, 67) = 12.16, p < .001, R2 = .52). The results indicate that a combination of these variables and attitudes can successfully predict patriotism. In addition, the smugness variable was the only predictor of nationalism. Significant findings add to the current research and may help future researchers develop a way to enhance patriotism without the derogatory attitudes of nationalism.

Betsy Plank

Iqra Ilyas, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Public Relations Society of America and Publicity Club of Chicago’s first woman president, Betsy plank was first to achieve what many would refer to as a male dominant position since public relations wasn’t even on her degree of study. She attained national and international stature during her distinguished career of 63 years. Establishment of Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA) and Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations are among her major achievements. Her legacy is most visible in the countless public relations professionals, educators and students who credit her with taking the time to mentor them throughout her career. Her focus on others led her to become the most individually-recognized woman in the industry, a testament to the value of selflessness in professionalism.

Cortney Alexander's Eligibility Portfolio

Cortney P. Alexander Ms., Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Dorothea Lange

Andrea R. Moore, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Dorothea Lange was a famous photojournalist in the United States in the early 1900s. She studied photography at Columbia University in addition to holding apprenticeships in portrait photography, but soon fell in love with documentary photography. Lange’s images sparked global conversation among citizens as well as informed them of world events taking place near and far away from them. Her images made news more tangible and helped people around the globe understand one another.

Epidemiology of Five Major Diseases Affecting Cattle in Kentucky 2015

Madelyn K. Pelletier, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Five major diseases affecting cattle in the state of Kentucky during the year of 2015 include but are not limited to: Anaplasmosis, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Leptospirosis, Johne’s Disease, and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). Using the USALims, the information management system used by the Murray State Breathitt Veterinary Center, this study will examine the epidemiology of these five diseases in terms of location in the state and time of year the diseases are prevalent. These five diseases where chosen due to volume of cases and their fatal affect. Cattle producers in Kentucky are losing thousands of dollars due to the epidemic nature of these diseases. The aim of this study is to find trends in where the diseases are widespread and what time of year cattle are affected. In completing this study the objective is to provide cattle producers in Kentucky with the information to better prepare for the diseases that affect their area and what times of year their animals are more at risk for contracting these diseases. With the information provided in this study cattle producers in Kentucky should be able to adapt techniques to help improve profits by lowering fatalities to Anaplasmosis, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Leptospirosis, Johne’s Disease, and Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV).

Helen Lansdowne Resor

Shannon A. Hilkey, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Helen Landsdowne Resor is known as being the first female copywriter. She contributed to the advertising world in a way that women simply didn’t at that time. She was the first woman to successfully plan and write national advertising, rather than just retail ads. In particular, she is credited with creating a new style of "feature story" advertising that used illustrations and text that appealed to readers' emotions. Perhaps her greatest contribution to copywriting, however, was her idea that "copy must be believable.” She was also able to tie in her feminism beliefs into her creative work. She took an ad for facial soap and sexualized the copy with the phrase, “A skin you love to touch.” In addition to her creative work, Resor mentored young women wanting to advance in advertising and set up a woman editorial department in the ad agency where she worked.

Hidaya Al Salem achievements.

Abdullah Alajmi, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Title:

Hidaya Al Salem: Her fight against corruption and the police force, and for full suffrage for women.

Hidaya was born in Kuwait 1935 and died in 2001. She was the first female journalist, and also the first middle school teacher in Kuwait City. Al Salem was a Kuwaiti social activist who campaigned against official corruption and also she was a Kuwaiti feminist who are demanding the right of Kuwaiti women to vote in political election. Al Salem was an active board member of the Kuwait journalists’ association, Kuwaiti women's association, owner and editor in chief of Al-Majalis magazine. She was the author of notable women in the holy Quran. She explained how Islam treated women nicely in her book notable women in the holy Quran. In 2001, Al Salem was murdered in Kuwait City, when an armed attacker opened fire on her six times while she was driving her car to women and culture conference. According to press reports, “the reasons behind this assassination could be alleged financial disputes within Al Salem's family and other alleged disputes with some of her employees”.

History of Bader Koryem in Saudi Media

Mohammed Alsaeed, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The professor Bader Koryem is one of the first media practitioners in Saudi Arabia. he is one of the most important names in Saudi Arabian mass media. He started working with media since 1957. He continued working with different type of media vehicle till he passed away last year. His enhancement to Saudi media is limitless. At the time he started to work with media, the Saudi media was in it's beginning. He worked as Radio broadcaster, GM of Saudi Arabian Radio, GM of PR management at Marwa Foundation, GM of Saudi Press, Professor at IMSU and he worked at the head of king Faisal Bin Abdulaziz public relation department for 11 years. Lastly, he published 6 different books about media.

Implementation of Flipped Classrooms in a Non-Major Biology Course

Leah Good, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

With major calls for reform in STEM education from professional organizations (e.g. AAAS, NIH, NSF), studies have found that faculty in higher education can improve student learning by changing their teaching from teacher-centered to student-centered. Change in teaching practice can be difficult, however, especially without significant training. One method of introducing student-centered teaching practices into the classroom is through the use of a flipped classroom model, where students engage in learner-centered activities within the classroom and receive passively-transmitted information outside the classroom. The focus of my study was two-fold, (a) to determine if the flipped classroom method affects student learning gains (b) and if the flipped classroom method affects student’s attitudes towards science and science literacy in an introductory non-major’s biology course. Surveys of teaching beliefs, teaching practices, and classroom observations of faculty participants were used to characterize flipped classrooms (n=4) and traditional classrooms (n=3). No training in teaching practice was provided to any faculty participant. Faculty who flipped their course used significantly more student-centered learning practices in the classroom. Students who attended a flipped class, however, had significantly lower overall learning gains than those in traditional classrooms. Students’ attitudes towards science and scientific literacy did not differ between class type. My results were consistent with prior research that showed that student performance was lower in student-centered classes when taught by faculty who lacked training in the use of student-centered teaching practices.

Ivy Lee

Faisal Zaben Alotaibi, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Ivy Lee: The Father of Modern Day Public Relations.

Ivy Ledbetter Lee is a prominent figure in the field of public relations and an American publicity expert. He is said to be the founder of what is presently known as public relations. He set up the Association of Railroad Executives which was used as a public relations service for the rail industry. He was able to use public relations to improve the morale of employees. One of such example is his use of internal magazines to motivate employees. He also held other positions such as Publicity Director for American Red Cross and later became the assistant to the Chairman of the American Red Cross.

James E. Grunig: Legend of PR

Fangning Yuan, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

James E. Grunig specialized in public relations, communication and dissemination of scientific theory. In 1984, Grunig and Todd Hunt co-authored Management of Public Relations. This approach is demonstrated in their definition of PR, which states: “public relations activities are part of the management of communication between an organization and its publics” (Grunig and Hunt, 1984, p.7-8). Grunig was an active social activist, and his name was on the list of all the important members of the U.S. academic communication organizations. Grunig’s significant contribution to the four models of PR is: 1. The Press Agentry Model. 2. The Public Information Model. 3. The 2-way asymmetrical model. 4. The 2-way symmetrical model. This contribution makes him in the superior position in his American PR community.

Judy Smith "A guiding hand"

Nicole D. Denkenberger, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Judy Smith lending a guiding hand.

Judy Smith though she her self may not be a household name many of the people she has advised and dealt with their crisis are, people such as Monica Lewinsky and Michal Vick. She has worked her way up to being one of the top names and go to people in PR and crisis management. Not just for individual people but for companies as well.

Smith was born in Washington D.C. and attended college at Boston College were she earned her bachelors after graduating she then attended American University were she graduated form the Washington College of Law. She was the first African- American female to serve as executive editor for the American University Law Review.

After receiving her law degree Smith eventually made her way to the White House were she served as Deputy Press Secretary to President George H.W. Bush. After leaving the White House she struck out on her own and started her own firm Smith & Company. It was there that she faced some of the challenges that she became known for handling such as Monica Lewinsky, Michal Vick and Sony.

Kentucky Lake: An Opportunity for Long Term Monitoring of Fish Communities

Bradley Hartman, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Global aquatic ecosystems are impacted by a variety of mechanisms including habitat destruction, fish overharvest, and the introduction of invasive species. Long term monitoring of an ecosystem’s fish community, along with abiotic and biotic factors that influence the fish community, is crucial in establishing effective management strategies. Currently, numerous monitoring programs exist across the United States. However, a long term monitoring program of non-game and non-commercial fish community dynamics has not been established within Kentucky Lake in Western Kentucky. Preliminary sampling of the Kentucky Lake fish community was performed using boat electroshocking and surface trawling. Four embayments within Kentucky Lake were sampled with a randomized block experimental design. Within each embayment, 5 separate electrofishing samples were obtained from randomly chosen 500-meter shoreline segments; each sample utilizing 1 of 6 different randomly selected electroshocking wave forms. Two 10-minute surface trawling samples were also taken. Each collected specimen was identified to species and total length of each specimen was obtained. Concurrently with Hancock Biological Station’s bimonthly water quality/plankton surveys, this sampling protocol will be used for a long term fish monitoring program that will track catch per unit effort, body condition, and species diversity of non-game and non-commercial fish in Kentucky Lake.

Margaret Bourke-White: A Female of Firsts in the World of Photojournalism

Allie F. Douglass, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

New York born photographer Margaret Bourke-White propelled herself and her photographs through obstacles of war, financial depression and gender inequality throughout her career; becoming a pioneer in the photojournalism field in the eyes of both women and men. As the first female photographer at both LIFE and Fortune magazines, Bourke-White traveled across the globe, creating historical images documenting the Dust Bowl, the Korean War and concentration camps in Nazi Germany. Her iconic images of Mohandas Gandhi, World War II prisoners and drought victims during the Dust Bowl lead to an impactful presence of feminist strength in photojournalism during and after her life. The effects of Bourke-White’s accomplishments within the fields of mass communications and photojournalism are chronicled in detail throughout this historical academic poster.

Mineral Composition of Ash from Agricultural Waste Burning Using Bioburner 500.

Nicole E. States, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

1NICOLE STATES, CLAYTON KEISER, JASON ROBERTSON and BOMMANNA LOGANATHAN Department of Chemistry and Watershed Studies Institute, Murray State University and Hutson School of Agriculture, Murray State University, Murray, KY 42071.

Murray State University’s Hutson School of Agriculture has installed a new 500 kBTU/hr biomass burner (BB500 Bio-Burner, LEI Industries, Madisonville, KY) at the Farm Center during the Fall2014 to evaluate various crops and biomass materials as energy sources. Experimental burning of various feedstocks including wood chips, sorghum, equine manure, switchgrass and hemp samples were conducted during Spring 2015. Amount of feedstock burned ranged from 765 kg to 1255 kg. The amount of ash collected varied from 2 kg to 120kg. The mineral analysis in the ash samples were performed following the procedure of ASTM D3682. Oxides of Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Sr, Ba, Mn were measured. Results revealed that the mineral composition of ash samples varied with different feedstocks burned. Among various minerals measured, silicon dioxide had the highest amount per kg of ash (430-710g/kg) followed by calcium oxide (53-300g/kg) in almost all of the ash samples tested. Strontium oxide had the lowest amount (0.2-1.1g/kg). Among the various feedstocks, energy sorghum contained the highest amount (710g/kg) of silicon dioxide. Equine manure contained the highest amount (300g/kg of ash) of calcium oxide.

Scholars Week and Student Teaching Eligibility Portfolio

Shelby L. Beggs, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Simeon Booker: The Jackie Robinson of Journalism

Travin Hardy, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Simeon Booker was the first African-American reporter employed by The Washington Post newspaper and served as a pioneer for African-American journalists. Providing the public with groundbreaking news during the civil rights movement, Booker also served as the chief of Jet magazine for an astounding 51 years. Simeon Booker earned the respect of his peers early in his career with his consistent and honest coverage of events happening during the civil rights movement. Though Booker was a witness to several instances of racial violence and discrimination, he did not let this intimidate him and earned several awards for the many feats accomplished throughout his career. This journalist has contributed to journalism in many ways and did not retire until 2007 at the age of 88 years old. Though Booker is retired he still manages to leave us with another legendary contribution to journalism in his memoir “Shocking The Conscience”, which was recently published in 2013.

Special Education Unit- Portfolio 2016

Cassidy N. Rice, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Student Teaching Eligibility Portfolio Presentation

Garris Stroud, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Student Teaching Eligibility Portfolio Spring 2016

Jasmine C. Dillard, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Student Teaching Portfolio

Kortney M. Abbott, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Student Teaching Portfolio - Figurative Language in Special Education

Amberly R. Moss, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The Change in the Mortality Rate of the Canine Parvovirus

Kadie Kinnis, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

This paper attempts to give a detailed background into the Canine Parvovirus and discover if the mortality rate has increased, decreased, or stayed the same over the span of 5 years, from 2010-2015. The paper also attempts to explain the change in the mortality rate, is it because of better prevention, better treatments, or are owners recognizing symptoms in their pets sooner allowing for quicker treatments.

The Feasibility of Using Cannabis in Veterinary Medicine

Harmon Wilson, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

With discussions surrounding the legalization of cannabis for medicinal and recreational purposes gaining popularity within the United States, this presentation will look at the benefits and risks of using plants within the Cannabis genus in veterinary medicine. The viability of cannabis use as compared to drugs currently used to treat symptoms such as poor appetite and seizures will occur in order to determine if it is feasible for Cannabis sativa to gain a place in conventional veterinary practices. A focus on hemp, a variety of Cannabis sativa that produces less than 0.3% THC, will occur in light of the recent research permits granted within the state of Kentucky. Comparisons between cannabis administration to patients and the administration of current drugs of choice will be made on the basis of efficacy, cost, and known risks.

The God Father of Public Relations

Abdullah N. Alsuabaie, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

The God father of Public Relations

Edward L. Bernyas is a pioneer and many scholars consider him as a father of Public Relation “PR”. Bernyas started his career work as a press agent before World War I. He also worked for an organization that was created by the U.S government to affect public opinions in the U.S to know the effect of American participation in the war at that time and the organization name was Creel Committee. Furthermore, Dernyas developed and created many techniques to shape public opinions. He thought deeply and came up with new idea of life’s work which he named “engineering public constant” and then he opened his office in New York, his office was specialized for Public Relation Consultant and that was in 1919. Moreover, at New York University he gave the first course on public relation, and later at the same year Bernyas published his first book on public relation and the name of the book is “Crystallizing Public Opinion”. In addition, Bernyas received an award from National Association for the Advancement of Colored People because of the successful campaign that he hosted, no violence was reported at that campaign against African-American. Bernyas’s campaign tried to focus on the importance of the combination between African-American and the Whites who live in the South. Bernyas also helped to change women attitude and freedom and that was when women were not allowed to smoke in public places. Dernyas was a professional attitude maker because of his efforts in the society.

THE ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

Topaz Prawito, Murray State University
iin Handayani, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

THE ROLE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON CORRUPTION IN INDONESIA

Topaz A. Prawito 1) and Iin P. Handayani 2)

1) Honors College, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA

2) Hutson School of Agriculture, Murray State University, KY, USA

ABSTRACT

Corruption has been one of the longest lasting problems within a nation’s economy all around the word. There is a complex relationship between the socio-economic factors and corruption. Having both direct and indirect effects on the nation’s economy as a whole, it is important to analyze how such factors truly influence the business arena. Despite the constant progress towards globalization, there is a distinct contrast to the business culture of the Western world. As shown by Transparency International, developing countries tend to be ranked with low CPI (Corruption Perception Index) scores, which translates into high corruption level. Many theories focus on external factors as the main root of corrupt activities; the internal factors, however, are often overlooked. Internal factors embedded within a country, such as its inherent culture, level of consumerism, and other socio-economic factors turn the gears to constantly stimulate the inescapable corruption cycle in many developing nations, including Indonesia. Based on this study, Indonesia’s most visible internal factors of corrupt activities are the rising consumerism level and the widening income gap of the citizens. Together, they result in heavy social pressures to earn more income through questionable methods. In the process, corrupt activities tend to be more common in certain parts of Indonesia’s society.

Key words: Indonesia, socio-economic, corruption, consumerism, culture

TPA Eligibility Portfolio

Sandy L. Crowell, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

TPA Eligibility Portfolio Showcase

Erikka B. Cavanah, Murray State University

Crow’s Nest, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

Truth was his defense: The libel trial of John Peter Zenger

Nicholas Dixon, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

John Peter Zenger spent nearly eight months in jail starting in 1734 but still printed The New York Weekly Journal with the help of his wife while he was on trial for seditious libel. In those days, libel was anything that was against the government. It didn’t matter if the information was true or false. Controversy plagued Zenger’s trial from the beginning as William Cosby, the governor of New York, did everything he could to sabotage Zenger as Cosby was the centerpiece of most of Zenger’s editorials. Zenger was one of the first journalists to emphasize the importance of the media being the fourth estate and being a watchdog of the government.

"Women on Women Aggression" Predictors of a Belief in Double Standards

April D. Crabtree, Murray State University

Small Ballroom, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM

"Woman on Woman Aggression": Predictors of Beliefs in Double Sex Standards

The presence of double standards is a topic that has been widely researched for the past several decades. Sexual double standards are based on the belief that sexual behaviors by women are viewed differently than when similar behaviors are exhibited by men. Early research stated that double standards were no longer much of an issue as seen in archival research by Crawford and Popp (2003). As they pulled research from previous decades, they concluded that double standards were not much of an issue in the 1970’s but resurfaced a decade later. This is not to say that double standards were not present, but rather that they were not as prevalent. Researchers have posed questions on where the idea of double standards originate or what causes them. Marks and Fraley (2006) theorized that confirmation bias plays a role in the double standards that many persons exhibit. They felt that anecdotal rather than theoretical evidence supported the idea of a double standard through confirmation bias. Other researchers have drawn on these ideas and have theorized that some women may contribute to confirmation bias with their outward behaviors and attitudes about themselves. Zalkman and Marks (2014) brought ambivalent sexism to the forefront of their studies. They felt that the goal of present research should be to determine whether and to what extent sexism among persons moderates the exhibition of the sexual double standard. Their work approaches double standard research with this new element of sexism and opens up new avenues in which to research.

By utilizing the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and a researcher created scale based on Paynter’s Sexual Double Standards Scale (2013), the question of if there is a positive correlation between the presence of a sexist attitude, either hostile or benevolent, and higher levels of a sexual double standard was able to be tested. It is our hope that this will further the research of Zalkman and Marks (2014) and shed light on newly hypothesized areas regarding double standards, where they are formed, and how they shape our perceptions. The research looked at the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1988), Belief in a Just World Scale (BJW; Dalbert, 1998), Social Dominance Orientation (SDO; Sidanious & Pratto, 1999), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1983). These scales allowed exploration into alternate factors that may contribute to the belief in double standards. With a better understanding of double standards and sexism, we can better understand other social issues such as bias, prejudice, and intolerance.

The current research project focused on college age women and the interactions between levels of sexist beliefs and the presence of a sexual double standards against other women. Further research projects will follow to include a larger age population and will include men. It was hypothesized that there is a positive correlation between high levels of sexism and the belief in double standards among individuals. We also examined the relationship between double standards and sexism with the subscales hostile and benevolent. We also looked at the aforementioned variables that were collected to look for additional correlations that may be present. The overall model is significant F (3, 70) = 6.81, p < .001, R2 = .23. When we controlled for personality variables benevolent sexism and personal distress predicted double standard beliefs. However our end finding found that hostile sexism was the only significant predictor (B= .25, t= 2.01, p= .049), personal distress was not significant (B = .18, t = 1.47, p = .146), nor was benevolent sexism (B = .15, t = 1.21, p = .232).

3:30 PM

An Analysis of Hawthorne and Akutagawa

Kisaki Takeuchi, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

“Young Goodman Brown” (1835) by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a short story criticizing the hypocrisy of Puritans of Precolonial America. The story, set in Salem, MA, depicts Goodman Brown’s journey into the forest where he discovers the moral turpitude of his fellow townsmen. “Rashōmon” (1915) by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, on the other hand, is a short story revealing the egoism of human beings. The story, set in Kyoto, Japan in the last years of the Heian Period, is about an unemployed servant who climbs up the ladder into the Rashōmon. Inside the gate, the servant meets an old woman and absconds after stealing the woman’s kimono. The works differ greatly in plot, setting, and cultural and historical background; however, when taking a formalist perspective, “Young Goodman Brown” and “Rashōmon” both evince the characteristics of Dark Romanticism while sharing similar themes, symbols, and character development.

Feminism in Hawthorne's Life and Works

Ashley R. Morgan, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Old Scratch, Beelzebub and Chillingworth: Christian Devil Representation in The Scarlet Letter

Darien M. Martin, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Thursday, April 21st
9:00 AM

Exploring Factors that Influence Preference for Pharmacological and Psychological Treatments of Anxiety Disorders

Heston Arnold, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Anxiety disorders are the most commonly occurring psychological disorders in the United States. To remedy anxiety disorders, pharmacological and psychological treatments are commonly utilized. Previous literature has shown that people suffering from anxiety disorders generally prefer psychological treatment when compared to pharmacological treatment. The present study further examined treatment preference by examining demographic variables, including rural/urban background, anxiety sensitivity, anxiety severity, and knowledge of treatment in relation to treatment preference. The study utilized the Murray State University Psychology Department SONA system to distribute a survey to students in general psychology courses. The survey included questions concerning participant demographics, the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 scale, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 scale. In addition, the survey asked for the participant’s treatment preference before information about treatment was administered, as well as the participant’s treatment preference after information about treatment was administered. Obtained findings will be explored in terms of initial treatment preference, predictors of treatment preference, changes in treatment preference after information is administered, and predictors of preference change. Implications for future patient preference research and evidence based practice will be discussed.

H-K-ATPase (Hydrogen-Potassium transport) mediates hormonal effects on morphological changes in benign prostatic hypertrophy

Renn Lovett, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Background: The prostate, the key secondary male reproductive organ, serves an important function of alkalizing seminal fluid and protecting genetic information in the acidity of the vaginal tract. As males age, the most common urologic condition manifests as an enlargement of the prostate known as benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between hormonal regulation and the morphological changes in BPH. Furthermore, we examine whether such hormonal regulation is mediated by HKA.

Methods: The experiments were designed to test the effects of the primary male androgen, testosterone propionate (TP), as well as the female hormone, estradiol (E2). Sprague-Dawley outbred rats were divided into three groups; control group, TP group, and TP-E2 group. Both the TP and the E2 were diluted in vegetable oil and covered to eliminate light exposure. Subcutaneous injections of TP at 3 mg/mL were administered to induce BPH in rats. After 6 weeks of TP-induced BPH, we divided these rats into two groups. In one group of BPH rats, we injected 60 µg of E2, and in another group of BPH rats, we injected 120 µg of E2 subcutaneously. The rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and the prostate specimens were dissected. The rat’s body weight and the prostate tissue weight were measured as the organ quotient. The total prostate specimens were divided into two groups, one tissue group was fixed and embedded in paraffin using histopathological methods to examine the effects on morphological changes in BPH. The other tissue group was examined by Western blot for analysis of HKA by using anti-HKA alpha antibody.

Results: The data indicate significant hypertrophy of the luminal cells in rats with 3 mg TP (11/15/14) compared to the control (524.542 ± 4.637 vs. 350.583 ± 1.996, P-value < 0.005). Furthermore, the experimental group with 3 mg TP (11/13/14) and 60 µg E2 (1/13/15) showed inhibitory effects compared to TP-induced BPH (385.571 ± 7.265 vs. 524.542 ± 4.637, P-value < 0.005). Lastly, the experimental group with 3 mg TP (11/13/14) and 120 µg E2 (1/13/15) showed significant inhibitory effect compared to TP-induced BPH (465.857 ± 8.259 vs. 524.542 ± 4.637, P-value < 0.005). However, the inhibitory effects of the 60 µg E2 group were more significant than the inhibitory effects of the 120 µg E2 group (385.571 ± 7.265 vs. 465.857 ± 8.259, P-value < 0.005), suggesting the importance of maintaining a proper E2:TP ratio. Western blot analysis shows up-regulation of specific bands for HKA alpha subunit at ~97 kDa for TP-induced BPH and down-regulation of HKA in the TP+E2 treatment groups.

Conclusions: Our results show that TP induced benign prostate hypertrophy. Furthermore, E2 is shown to inhibit BPH; however, the effect of E2 inhibition on BPH requires the optimal ratio between E2 and TP. If such a ratio is not reached, then BPH inhibition will not occur by E2. Both the induction and inhibition of hypertrophic cells suggests that the prostate is under hormonal regulation. The proper E2:TP ratio plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of BPH. Such knowledge of E2:TP ratio in humans may help to prevent or cure BPH in the future.

Vaccination Demographics: Do the Reasons Support the Results?

Morgan B. Bethel, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

9:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Previous vaccination demographic studies have concluded that lower income and minority demographics' primary factor influencing their decision to not vaccinate their children is the effort and difficulty required to return for multiple subsequent vaccinations. Conversely, white upper-class cite health concerns as their primary factor. Supporting this, are studies showing that minority demographics tend to be under vaccinated as opposed to unvaccinated. Furthermore, vaccination exemption difficulty has been inversely associated with the number of exemptions. If effort and difficulty are the primary cause, one would expect lower income and minority groups to respond more dramatically than other groups to differences in exemption difficulty. This study examines the difference in vaccination levels of minority and low-income demographics in “easy” exemption states and “difficult” exemption states versus that of other demographic groups.

9:30 AM

Ergonomic Assessment for a Small Engine Manufacturing Plant

Justin York, Murray State University
James Kemp, Murray State University

Room 146, I & T Building

9:30 AM - 1:45 PM

Ergonomic Assessment for a Warehouse Distribution Center.

Denis Tukasingura, Murray State University
Meghan Mattmiller, Murray State University
Sam Armstrong, Murray State University

Room 146, I & T Building

9:30 AM - 1:45 PM

Ergonomic Assessment in a Poultry Facility

Toni Wickson, Murray State University

Room 146, I & T Building

9:30 AM - 1:45 PM

Ergonomic Field Assessment of Construction Workers

James David Nance, Murray State University
Kaitlin M. Budnick, Murray State University

Room 146, I & T Building

9:30 AM - 1:45 PM

10:00 AM

Ancient Cynic in Modern Times

Norman K. Franklin III, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:00 AM

Extension of a Perturbation Analysis in Search of Exomoons in Planet-Pulsar Systems

Caleb Hughes, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:00 AM

Perturbation theory studies the effect of small parameters on a given equation. Applied to orbital mechanics, these minute changes can be measured and used to detect changes in periodic phenomena. One such periodic phenomena is the time of arrival (TOA) of regularly detectable pulses from a pulsar, a rapidly rotating star. Perturbations can be modeled theoretically and then matched with experimental data in order to discern if it is likely that a given planet-pulsar system has an exomoon. The original mathematical analysis of this phenomenon was conducted out to order O2) and found that, for the case of a theoretical Jupiter-Jupiter system, a perturbation of 960 ns would occur. Our analysis expands the Maclaurin Series of the perturbed problem to order O3) and for the same system determines an additional perturbation of 46 ns, indicating an improved threshold for detectability of the exomoon. Computational software was also used to explore a general form for the terms of order ε4 and higher to explore the limits of a useful approximation.

Noise Exposure aboard Nuclear-Powered Aircraft Carriers

Justin D. Bryant, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:00 AM

United States nuclear-powered aircraft carriers have a highly structured schedule that involves recurring periods of training, deployment, and maintenance. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a significant problem among Sailors aboard these carriers due to the nature of ongoing shipboard operations and extended periods of noise exposure. This study aims to characterize Sailors’ occupational noise exposure during the carrier’s training and maintenance periods. Significant overexposures were recorded throughout this study. Flight operations contributed significantly to noise dose during the training and readiness phase. Rehabilitation work involving the use of needle-guns was a significant contributor to the excessive noise doses during maintenance phase. The Navy should use the results of this study to better understand and control Sailors’ occupational noise exposure.

The Ontology of Possible Objects and the Paradox of Fiction

Andrew S. Hartley, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

10:00 AM - 11:00 AM

11:00 AM

A Philosophical Approach to Animal Rights

Kyle D. Reaka, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

This presentation will be of my Senior Honor's Thesis, which explores the issue of animal rights from various philosophical perspectives. These perspectives include utilitarianism, Kantianism, ecofeminism, and others. Through this cross-section of views, I formulate and defend my own position. I ultimately advocate for the extension of basic rights and liberties to non-human animals, as well as a respect for these rights through the practice of ethical vegetarianism.

Public Perception of Artificial Intelligence

Cory Canter, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

11:00 AM - 12:00 PM

There is such a divergence between the realities of artificial intelligence: where the field currently stands, future projections, etc., and the ways that it is portrayed in various forms of media. In this study I examined sources ranging from expert predictions and standings and news reports on developments in the field to different ways A.I. has been shown in various forms of media, as well as conducted a survey to gauge understanding and opinion on A.I. to explore the links between the coverage and portrayal of A.I. and the public's perception of the field.

11:30 AM

Causes of Math Anxiety

Emma Schell, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

11:30 AM - 12:30 PM

Math is a subject that is taught every year from kindergarten through 12th grade and it continues throughout higher education. It is one of the most important subjects in school, yet it is often the most feared and disliked by students. According to the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), in 2012, the United States scored lower than the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) average on math scores, which was lower than 29 education systems. Research shows that students are accepting failure in mathematics due to math anxiety and societal pressures. (Latterell 2005). Unfortunately, there are many negative effects of math anxiety, including avoidance, low self-efficacy in mathematics, and poor performance (Ashcraft, 2002). To minimize the effects of math anxiety, it is crucial for educators to know why the math anxiety was developed within their students.

Through a collection of current literature and interviews with college students who have math anxiety to understand their full experience with mathematics, this study aims to conclude what causes math anxiety in our students. When educators determine the causes of the math anxiety, they need the tools and resources to help students overcome or reduce their math anxiety. This study also explores suggestions for what teachers can do to help their students with math anxiety be successful in mathematics.

Communication and its Impact on Retention at the Post Secondary Level

Jason P. Esau, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

11:30 AM - 12:30 PM

As students enter a post secondary educational setting, they experience a wide range of experiences and emotions. Making the decision to return to said institution the following semester is vital to the well-being of both the student and the institution, and communication theory can help diagnose and explain how this process works.

Effects of Title IX Today

Jarred M. Koerner, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

11:30 AM - 12:30 PM

The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the current status of Title IX and its effects and impact in the athletic setting. This paper will discuss how Title IX evolved and how school institutions are meeting the requirements of the new code. This paper will also examine both landmark and significant cases that have helped mold the current state of issue. It is concluded by addressing flaws in Title IX which may cause some men's sports to be overly competitive while also diminishing the competitive setting of women's sports.

12:00 PM

An Analysis of the Accounting and Financial Effects of Inconsistent State and Federal Laws on Growth of the Recreational Marijuana Industry

Kimberly Taylor, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

There is limited information available concerning the recreational marijuana industry due to its first state legalization occurring in only 2012. As such, much is still being discovered about the industry and the various state and federal laws addressing it. These laws can affect both the medical and recreational marijuana industries, which are often intertwined, and have raised numerous questions as to how to conduct business in an environment of legislative and legal uncertainty. In the current study, the accounting and financial effects of the inconsistent state and federal laws regarding the recreational marijuana industry are examined from the following perspectives: banking and financial institutions, marijuana dispensary business owners, and certified public accountants (CPAs). It has been argued that the lack of federal action in regards to the discrepancies between state and federal legislation is hindering growth of the emerging industry, even in states that have legalized marijuana for recreational use. The results of this study support the view that various financial and accounting aspects of legislative ambiguity are impeding the growth of the recreational marijuana industry. Marijuana businesses are facing high effective tax rates, financial institutions are hesitant to form relationships with businesses in the industry, and CPAs are faced with many uncertainties when considering to offer services to marijuana businesses.

Authority in the Public Eye

Kendrick Settler Jr., Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 1:15 PM

Education in Actuarial Science and the Role of Data Analytics

Meagen L. Wagner, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

The field of actuarial science is by no means a new discipline. However, the educational content for aspiring actuaries must continue to develop alongside the advancements in the profession. The increasing prevalence of data analysis in the field of actuarial science begs for a change in the curriculum and the Society of Actuaries is responding. The question that naturally arises concerns how data analytics can be integrated into the already rigorous educational standards of the actuarial profession. To examine this idea it is necessary to research what data analytics is to an actuary and how colleges and universities have created actuarial science programs. These topics can facilitate a solution to how actuarial programs can adapt to changes in the curriculum. A literary review and analysis will provide insight to better actuarial education here at Murray State University and in the profession as a whole.

Pricing Models for Financial Options

Jesse Sautel, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 1:00 PM

Financial options are contracts often used as tools for hedging a position on fluctuating stock prices. There is no closed form solution for the pricing of these options; however, there exist certain numerical techniques to price them. For this paper, I implemented binomial and trinomial probability models to price a total of twenty-four different types of options, using MATLAB to code the pricing algorithms. The probability-based pricing system starts with the creation of a lattice for the tree of possible stock prices, then works recursively from the far end of the tree (the end of a user-specified time period) to reach a single price value at the time of the option’s purchase. There was also an investigation into simplicity (measured in time taken for the computer to reach the option price) versus accuracy (measured in difference in price from some benchmark, more accurate value) as the number of steps of the stock tree increased.

Sports Fandom and Relationships: Perceptions of a significant other’s favorite sport team

Michelle R. Sherman, Murray State University
Dan Wann, Murray State University
Jana Hackathorn, Murray State University

Ohio Room, Curris Center

12:00 PM - 1:15 PM

12:30 PM

Bioenergy Corp Production and Combustion in Agriculture

Vaughn T. Reed, Murray State University
Caleb Brannon, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:30 PM - 1:30 PM

Biomass, vegetative waste from energy crops such as switch grass and sorghum, is a key input for transforming the face of energy and agriculture for the future of Kentucky, the nation, and the world. The purpose of this experiment at Murray State University using the Bio-Burner 500 unit—BB-500— from L.E.I products in Madisonville, KY, was to evaluate the efficiency of a combustion-based energy converter and boiler using various biomass materials, along with providing some heat to The Equine Center at Murray State University. Loose forms of switch grass, tobacco stalks, miscanthus, equine waste, wood shavings and mixtures of these fuels were burned over a 24 hr period in outdoor temperatures below 68°F. Factors including burn and ash weight, ash clinkers, fan and fuel speed, moisture levels of material, and BTU measurements were recorded to assist in determining the success of each burn trial and overall energy balance of the system. Upon analysis of the data, the biomass with the most productive burn proved to be the wood shavings. The least productive burns proved to be the cellulosic biomass, which included miscanthus and switchgrass, and the equine waste. The grasses burned less effectively than the woody materials, however, it required less material. Equine waste, while plentiful in our area, produces high ash amounts, and has a high affinity of making ash clinkers. Wood shavings and tobacco stalks burned more effectively, and less labor intensity, however, more material was required. The research conducted in this study can provide Murray State and the scientific community insightful information about future applications of bioenergy.

PIASy and Ubc9 mediated SUMOylation enhances Glis3 transcriptional activity

Tyler M. Hoard, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:30 PM - 1:30 PM

Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) is a Krüppel-like transcription factor that has been implicated in a number of human pathologies including polycystic kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. Further, Glis3 has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of insulin transcription and defective Glis3 signaling is associated with the development of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the proteins or posttranslational modifications that regulate Glis3 activity. In this study, we have identified two specific regions within the Glis3 protein that are targets for the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). We show that SUMOylation of Glis3 is mediated by proteins belonging to the Protein-Inhibitor of Activated STAT (PIAS) family as well as the E2 SUMO-conjugase, Ubc9. While the functional effect of SUMOylation on Glis3 remains unknown, we found that PIASy and Ubc9 co-expression significantly enhanced the transcriptional activity of Glis3, possibly by increasing Glis3 association with the ubiquitous co-activator, CREB Binding Protein (CBP). Collectively, these data identify SUMO as a novel regulator of Glis3 transcriptional activity and provide possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of Glis3-associated disease.

Thermal, Mechanical, and Conductive Properties of Imidazolium-Containing Thiol-Ene Photopolymerized Networks

Taylor C. Rhoades, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

12:30 PM - 1:30 PM

Thiol-ene "click" chemistry is a rapid radical mediated process between readily available thiol, -SH, and an alkene, C=C, that can be done in mild solvent conditions. Ionic liquids are poorly coordinated salts with low melting points that exhibit properties like low toxicity profiles, reduced volatility, low flammability and the ability to dissolve aqueous and organic-soluble materials. Poly(ionic liquid)s are polymerizable ionic liquids that combine the unique thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties of ionic liquids while restraining the cationic or anionic center within the repeating unit of the polymer chain. In this study we used the poly(ionic liquid) 1,3-diallylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was prepared along with pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) in five different molar ratios to investigate the differences in thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties in order to determine optimal crosslink density. It was found that the 1.0:2.0 network exhibited the highest glass transition temperature and storage modulus. The 1.0:3.0 network exhibited the highest conductivity.

1:00 PM

Intrauterine Artificial Insemination in Show Stock Swine

Sarah D. Traylor, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

1:00 PM - 2:00 PM

During the 2015-2016 calendar year, I will be studying the comparisons and contrasts of traditional cervical exposure artificial insemination techniques versus a new method of transcervical (intrauterine) insemination that extends a separate catheter through the cervix and into the uterus. The study will measure conception rates, litter size, and cost efficiency as major factors to consider with each method and the way commercial producers can use this information to produce the largest litter possible while keeping both the sow and piglets safe and healthy. Sows at Murray State University’s North Farm will be randomly selected for technique so that no bias can be given based on previous conception pattern. The bulk of the project will be conducted during fall semester, 2015, including literature review and actual artificial insemination of sows at Murray State University’s North Farm. The project will carry over into the early spring of 2016 as the litters bred for in the fall are born and final results are collected and put together.

Soil Infiltration Rates in Six Agricultural Fields of Western Kentucky

Landon M. Gibbs, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

1:00 PM - 2:00 PM

The evaluation of infiltration rates is vital for calculation of surface runoff in order to reduce the risk of pollutants in the environment and to proficiently apply water and fertilizers for a crop’s benefit. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the impacts of six agroecosystems on infiltration rates; (2) to observe the temporal variability of soil infiltration rates under various seasons (fall-spring-summer-fall); and (3) to quantify the relationships between soil infiltration rates with other properties including soil organic carbon (SOC), macroaggregates, and bulk density. The study was held in Calloway County of western Kentucky. The ecosystems consisted of no-till corn, conventional tillage soybeans, conventional tillage tobacco, organically grown vegetables, woodland, and prairie. All of the soils used in this study have a silt loam texture. The infiltration rates were measured using a single ring infiltrometer. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was measured using the loss on ignition (LOI) method. Macroaggregates and bulk density were determined using wet sieving and ring methods, respectively. The data was statistically analyzed using ANOVA followed by the least significant difference (LSD) test at α 5%.The results show that organic farming and the wooded system have the highest infiltration rates(35.2 cm/hr and 37.7 cm/hr) and the lowest bulk densities (1.0 g/cm³ and 1.1 g/cm³), respectively. The relationship between infiltration rate and organic carbon, bulk density, macroporosity, and total porosity was r²=.99, r²=.60, r²=.69, and r²=.66. The no-till corn field had a higher bulk density than the conventionally tilled systems (1.7 g/cm³) and lower total porosity of 37%, but had a higher infiltration rate than the conventionally tilled systems at approximately 12.9 cm/hr. The organic system had a 60% lower bulk density than the no-till corn, which were the highest and lowest bulk densities, respectively. The most dramatic differences amongst infiltration rate occurred in the wooded system which increased from 36.3 cm/hr in the fall of 2013 to 39.3 cm/hr in the summer of 2014. Amongst the averages, however, which range from 4.3 cm/hr to 37.7 cm/hr, the seasonal changes were not significant.

1:30 PM

Four Generations: A Collection of Essays

Victoria L. Bertram, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

1:30 PM - 2:30 PM

The collection is a compilation of four creative nonfiction writing essays. Though separate entities (each essay is capable of standing alone), the four are meant to be read together and put into conversation with one another. The essays cover the span of the four living generations of women on the maternal side of my family. My great-grandmother, Ruby May Lyles, is the focus of one essay. Growing up in a town that is being industrialized in the early 1900s shapes a person; her essay reflects that. The essay about my grandmother, Janet Lynn Walker, focuses on the morphing of marriage over time and the attempt to understand generational differences. For the essay on my mother, Sherry Lynn Bertram, the focus is on stature and physical pain through untaught lessons and how that influences the lessons we willingly teach. And the essay focusing on myself looks at my transition over time under the influence of these women and the struggle with femininity, persona, and a hideous pair of pink eyeglasses. The collection is meant to use memoir and essayistic styles to better understand the complexities of these various relationships. Each essay is unique in topic, but also in style. Some have sequential plots and scenes while others abandon a chronological timeline and work through fragmented threads. The essays have been put together through family research, multiple interviews, and a bit of personal millennial perspective.

The essay being presented at Scholars week is the essay on my great-grandmother, Ruby, and her struggle with the social norms, the town she grew up in, and her interactions with the rest of the women in her family.

Play Analysis of Sam Shepard's Fool for Love

Christopher T. Lossie, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

1:30 PM - 2:30 PM

An in depth analysis of the play Fool for Love. This is research and analysis that would normally be in preparation of directing the show.

The Political Theory of Dystopian Literature

Josaphine H. Monarch, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

1:30 PM - 2:30 PM

Through the dystopian works of Aldous Huxley and George Orwell the ideas of political theorists will be explored. Looking to historical regimes similar to those created by the authors and technologies that are present in society today, the dangers of a seemingly utopian society will be examined and analyzed. Through this analysis, it will become clear that political theorists have correctly put forward theories that hold true in practice.

2:30 PM

The Role of Testosterone and Estradiol on the Morphological and Histological Changes of Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy in Sprague Dawley Rats

Renn Lovett, Murray State University

Barkley Room, Curris Center

2:30 PM - 3:30 PM

Background: The prostate, the key secondary male reproductive organ, serves an important function of alkalizing seminal fluid and protecting genetic information in the acidity of the vaginal tract. As males age, the most common urologic condition manifests as an enlargement of the prostate known as benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between hormonal regulation and enzymatic activity of the proton-pump, H-K-ATPase (HKA), on the effects of morphological changes in BPH.

Methods: The experiments were designed to test the effects of the primary male androgen, testosterone propionate (TP), as well as the primary male estrogen, estradiol (E2). Sprague-Dawley outbred rats were divided into three groups; control group, TP group, and TP-E2 group. Both the TP and the E2 were diluted in vegetable oil and covered to eliminate light exposure. Subcutaneous injections of TP at 3 mg/mL were administered to induce BPH in rats. After 6 weeks, differing dosages (60 µg and 120 µg) of E2 were administered subcutaneously. The prostate specimens were then dissected after euthanasia of the rats under anesthesia and the organ quotient measured. Some specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin using histopathological methods, in order to measure the size of the glandular cavity and prostate epithelia. Other specimens were used to run SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis for HKA activity using anti-HKA alpha antibody.

Results: The data indicate significant hypertrophy of the luminal cells in rats with 3 mg TP (11/15/14) compared to the control (P-value < 0.005). Furthermore, the experimental group with 3 mg TP (11/13/14) and 60 µg E2 (1/13/15) showed inhibitory effects compared to TP-induced BPH (P-value < 0.005). Lastly, the experimental group with 3 mg TP (11/13/14) and 120 µg E2 (1/13/15) showed significant inhibitory effect compared to TP-induced BPH (P-value < 0.005). However, the inhibitory effects of the 60 µg E2 group were more significant than the inhibitory effects of the 120 µg E2 group, suggesting the importance of maintaining a proper E2:TP ratio. Western blot analysis shows down-regulation of specific bands for HKA alpha subunit at ~97 kDa for TP-induced BPH.

Conclusions: Both the induction and inhibition of hypertrophic cells suggests that the prostate is under hormonal regulation. Furthermore, the proper E2:TP ratio plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of BPH. If the optimal ratio is not maintained, BPH may occur. Decreased HKA alpha expression in TP-induced BPH suggests that such enzymatic activity is androgen dependent. Such knowledge of E2:TP ratio in humans may help to prevent or cure BPH in the future.

4:30 PM

Don’t Keep a Good Man Down: Intervention Strategies for Common Causes of Anger and Aggression

Samantha N. Wright, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Effects of White-nose Syndrome on the Bat Community in Land Between the Lakes

Jordan Robbins, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Efficacy of an oral joint supplement in exercising horses

Maggie Nawa, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Finding the Truth: An Examination into the Use of Rhetoric in Thucydides

Eryn Pritchett, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Influence of Authority on Attitude Change due to Vicarious Dissonance

Kendrick Settler Jr., Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Quick AND Satisfied? The Effects of Positive Feedback on Task Completion

Rain M. Carroll, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Stress Mitigation Techniques in Shelter Cats: Effectiveness and Usage

Christina Sherman, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

The Evil that Men Do: Genocide in the Twentieth Century

Tracey Newport, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

The relationship between canine nasal length and second-hand smoke cotinine levels

Sierra Wilson, Murray State University
Terry Derting, Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM

Transnational Influences Of Early Jesuit Scholars and Explorers in the New World from 1560-1700

Lydia K. Biggs Ms., Murray State University

South Lobby, Waterfield Library

4:30 PM - 6:00 PM