This literature review examined nine quantitative research studies published between 1992-2013 that compared children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to identify: (a) the differences between these children (e.g., intellectual, behavioral); and (b) the diagnostic tools that may be used to distinguish between them, thereby providing a differential diagnosis. Special focus was placed on rural treatment implications. These studies revealed differences between the intellectual, executive functioning, adaptive behavior, motor, and behavioral skills of children with FASD and ADHD. This review identified neurodevelopmental assessments used in these nine research studies that appear to support learning and behavior differences between children with FASD and ADHD. Implications for prevention, assessment, and mental health treatment in rural social work practice are offered.

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