Murray State Theses and Dissertations


Research indicates that reading fluently is the key to success: academically, economically, socially, as well as to a healthier lifestyle (Forrest, 2018; Wanzek et al., 2018). While research has shown that Response to Intervention (RTI) is a positive instructional program that will increase primary students’ academic abilities at grades 1 and 2 (Richards et al., 2007), there is a need for more research regarding RTI with kindergarten students. This quasi-experimental quantitative research study examined if early identification and intensive intervention through the addition of Response to Intervention (RTI) at the kindergarten level will lead to increased reading scores and better grades. Two kindergarten classrooms from a small elementary school in Western Kentucky provided 14 students for the sample. They became the experimental and comparison groups because their September STAR Early Literacy Assessment scores and their first quarter Reading Foundational Skills grades revealed they were struggling to learn how to read. Findings revealed using RTI with both groups of students was statistically significant for their STAR Early Literacy Assessment Scores and Reading Foundational Skills grades. Discussion includes the study’s relation to P-20 goals and suggestions for future research.

Year manuscript completed


Year degree awarded


Author's Keywords

Keywords: P-20 education, early intervention, early identification, evaluation, struggling readers, kindergarten, developmental delay, Response to Intervention (RTI), STAR Early Literacy Assessment, specially designed instruction (SDI)

Dissertation Committee Chair

Cindy Clemson

Co-Director of Dissertation

Chanel Schwenck

Thesis Advisor

Randal H. Wilson

Committee Member

Rebecca R. Dunning

Committee Member

Jennifer M. Ashley

Document Type