Water Challenges and Solutions on a Global Scale

Document Type

Edited Book

Publication Date

Fall 12-15-2015

Publication Title

Water Challenges and Solutions on a Global Scale




Jesse D. Jones College of Science, Engineering and Technology


Water isthe most crucial material for human survival, after air. Without water, life would not be possible. It is important to know how much water is available to us and how much water is polluted. We need to monitor pollutants vigorously, both at point and nonpointsources, using advanced analytical techniquesthat can monitor ultratrace amounts of contaminants. Water reclamation is an absolute necessity today because we have contaminated our surface water, and even groundwater in some cases, to a point that it is not clean enough for drinking or cooking. Most importantly, we have to use water judiciously and reclaim water that is contaminated. This book provides information on various global water challenges and solutions.


We face many water challenges in terms of availability, quality, and sustainability (Chapter 1). There is an urgent need to find ways to make water more sustainable. To achieve this objective, we will have to address scientific, technical, economic, and social issues. Chapters 2 and 3 raise our awareness of water issues, as well as the impact of climate change. Water challenges, including sanitation issues in Central America, South America, and Africa, are covered in Chapters 4, 5, and 6. Water pollution in various rivers in India is encompassed in Chapters 7, 8, and 9. The currently implemented solutions are discussed in some detail. Water scarcity in the Middle East provides an interesting study in that part of the world (Chapter 10). The impact of firefighting foams on water in Japan is discussed at some length in Chapter 11. Overcoming the water treatment challenges in various European countries is covered in Chapters 12, 13, and 14. Chapter 15 discusses the role of immobilized microorganisms and aggregates in wastewater treatment. Reducing the effect of drought on soil in northeast Brazil is covered in Chapter 16. Promoting biodiversity through the maintenance of healthy wetlands can provide beneficial and sustainable ecosystems; however, it can also have adverse consequences on human health (see Chapter 17 for a study in Australia). Nanotechnology solutions to global water challenges are provided in Chapter 18. As a result of their exceptional adsorptive capacity for water contaminants, graphemebased nanomaterials have emerged as a subject of significant importance in the area of membrane filtration and water treatment. Global fresh water is finite, and its supply is severely strained by competing forces of an expanding world population on the one hand, and alterations in the water cycle as a result of climate change on the other (Chapter 19). I would like to thank the authors for their interesting contributions and coeditors for their help in preparation of this manuscript. I am sure this book will be found useful by many scientists, chemical engineers, educators, and administrators who are involved worldwide in water challenges and solutions.