Editor's Notes

Kaid Marek was recipient of an ORCA Research Grant. Kaid presented this research during Fall Scholars Week 2023.


Approximately 41% of sexual and gender minoritized (SGM) youth report considering suicide in 2022 (The Trevor Project, 2023), and they are 11 times as likely become the victims of violent crimes compared to non-SGM individuals (Flores et al., 2022). Thus, it is important to explore the roots of negative views toward SGM via internalized and projected gendered expectations from men and women. In men, precarious masculinity and self-image could predict homonegativity (Vandello et al., 2008). However, little is known about how women’s attitudes towards femininity and self-image could also predict sexual prejudice (Basow & Johnson, 2000).

One hundred thirty-seven predominantly white (88.3%), freshmen (59.9%) (Mage = 19.33; SD = 2.381) women contributed to our investigation of femininity, self-image, and sexual prejudice. Participants completed an online survey that measured self-esteem stability (Kernis, 2005), self-esteem level (Rosenberg, 1965), traditional gender roles (Spence & Helmreich, 1978; Weaver & Sargent, 2007), attitudes towards women (Spence et al., 1973), attitudes towards femininity within men (Levant et al., 2013), and attitudes towards lesbian and gay individuals (Morrison & Morrison, 2002; Levant et al., 2013; Worthington et al., 2005) during the Fall and Spring 2023 semesters. It was hypothesized that women with lower self-esteem and higher rates of gendered expectations towards women would have higher levels of homonegativity.

Correlational analyses revealed that stricter gendered attitudes towards women were associated with modern old-fashioned homonegativity (r = .398, p < .000003) and LGB hate (r = .377, p < .00001). Women’s beliefs that men should avoid femininity were also associated with modern old-fashioned homonegativity (r = .689, p < .000001) and with lack of support of LGB rights (r = -.500, p < .00001). Self-esteem levels also negatively correlated with negativity towards sexual minorities (r = -.221, p


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