Poster Title

Does Rival Fan Animosity Vary by League? A Replication and International Expansion

Grade Level at Time of Presentation

Sophomore

Major

Accounting

Institution

Northern Kentucky University

KY House District #

67

KY Senate District #

24

Department

Department of Marketing, Sport Business & Event Management, and Construction Management

Abstract

Numerous scholars have emphasized the importance of replication studies. The purpose of this study was to replicate a comparison of fans' reactions to rivals across different sport leagues, and extend the study to the foreign context of Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket.

Rivalry is a conflict between an ingroup and salient outgroup resulting in an us-versus-them mentality. The threat posed by a rival offers an opportunity for achievement if the threat can be overcome, which enhances both demand for rivalry competitions and the potential for antisocial outcomes among opposing fans. In application, the likelihood of these positive and negative effects influence event security protocols, promotional messaging, ticket and sponsorship pricing, and scheduling.

Based on the framework of affective aggression, we expected that fans' animosity toward rivals is heightened in sports with greater physicality. Furthermore, we anticipated that fan animosity in the IPL would be significantly lower than levels measured in North American (NA) leagues, due to the limited opportunities for IPL rivalry narratives to develop.

Using Qualtrics software, we surveyed fans (n = 3465) in six professional sport leagues. Replicated measures of prejudice, discrimination, schadenfreude, and disidentification toward rivals were collected using previously validated scales. Results of ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests replicated 13 of 40 total comparisons across the five NA leagues' fans. While NFL fans maintained the highest scores of discrimination, schadenfreude, and disidentification with rivals, the differences to other NA leagues were primarily significant only in schadenfreude.

Beyond replication, new findings demonstrated that IPL fans (subset n = 863) convey significantly lower animosity toward rival fans (p < 0.01) when compared to fans of the five NA leagues, with a single exception (IPL versus MLS fans' disidentification). We attribute these robust comparative effects to the limited historical narrative and number of clubs associated with the IPL.

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Does Rival Fan Animosity Vary by League? A Replication and International Expansion

Numerous scholars have emphasized the importance of replication studies. The purpose of this study was to replicate a comparison of fans' reactions to rivals across different sport leagues, and extend the study to the foreign context of Indian Premier League (IPL) cricket.

Rivalry is a conflict between an ingroup and salient outgroup resulting in an us-versus-them mentality. The threat posed by a rival offers an opportunity for achievement if the threat can be overcome, which enhances both demand for rivalry competitions and the potential for antisocial outcomes among opposing fans. In application, the likelihood of these positive and negative effects influence event security protocols, promotional messaging, ticket and sponsorship pricing, and scheduling.

Based on the framework of affective aggression, we expected that fans' animosity toward rivals is heightened in sports with greater physicality. Furthermore, we anticipated that fan animosity in the IPL would be significantly lower than levels measured in North American (NA) leagues, due to the limited opportunities for IPL rivalry narratives to develop.

Using Qualtrics software, we surveyed fans (n = 3465) in six professional sport leagues. Replicated measures of prejudice, discrimination, schadenfreude, and disidentification toward rivals were collected using previously validated scales. Results of ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests replicated 13 of 40 total comparisons across the five NA leagues' fans. While NFL fans maintained the highest scores of discrimination, schadenfreude, and disidentification with rivals, the differences to other NA leagues were primarily significant only in schadenfreude.

Beyond replication, new findings demonstrated that IPL fans (subset n = 863) convey significantly lower animosity toward rival fans (p < 0.01) when compared to fans of the five NA leagues, with a single exception (IPL versus MLS fans' disidentification). We attribute these robust comparative effects to the limited historical narrative and number of clubs associated with the IPL.