Western Kentucky University

Poster Title

Masculinity, Femininity, and Dignity: Examining the Relationship Between Gender Expression and Respect

Grade Level at Time of Presentation

Senior

Major

Psychological Sciences & Criminology

Institution 22-23

Western Kentucky University

KY House District #

24

KY Senate District #

14

Department

Psychological Sciences

Abstract

There is a lack of research on how gender expectations can create complications in various aspects of our lives, such as feeling respected in our familial or platonic relationships, education, and career. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between gender expression and respect. It is hypothesized that participants are more likely to associate a negative connotation with stereotypically feminine characteristics or traits. Additionally, it is hypothesized that higher levels of conformity to feminine gender norms will be associated with lower levels of respect received from peers.

Participants were 294 college students recruited from Western Kentucky University through an online study board platform. Mean age was 20.22, (SD=1.48) and the majority identified as female (81.6%). Participants completed the following measures: two modified versions of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), a Feelings of Respect Inventory (FRI), the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), and the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI). The BSRI was modified to measure the connotation participants associate with stereotypical gender traits. Data collection is ongoing and preliminary analyses are reported here.

One-way ANOVA results indicated that males conformed to feminine gender norms significantly less than females or other gender groups. Both males and females conformed to masculine gender norms significantly less than other gender groups. Other gender groups tended to feel significantly less respected compared to their female and male counterparts. Additionally, both males and other gender groups ranked feminine traits significantly more negatively than females did. There were no significant differences between males, females, or other gender groups regarding masculine traits being ranked negatively or positively. Future research should examine the changes in stereotypical gender roles in recent years. Additionally, a larger sample of males and other gender groups would reveal more patterns.

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Masculinity, Femininity, and Dignity: Examining the Relationship Between Gender Expression and Respect

There is a lack of research on how gender expectations can create complications in various aspects of our lives, such as feeling respected in our familial or platonic relationships, education, and career. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between gender expression and respect. It is hypothesized that participants are more likely to associate a negative connotation with stereotypically feminine characteristics or traits. Additionally, it is hypothesized that higher levels of conformity to feminine gender norms will be associated with lower levels of respect received from peers.

Participants were 294 college students recruited from Western Kentucky University through an online study board platform. Mean age was 20.22, (SD=1.48) and the majority identified as female (81.6%). Participants completed the following measures: two modified versions of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), a Feelings of Respect Inventory (FRI), the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI), and the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI). The BSRI was modified to measure the connotation participants associate with stereotypical gender traits. Data collection is ongoing and preliminary analyses are reported here.

One-way ANOVA results indicated that males conformed to feminine gender norms significantly less than females or other gender groups. Both males and females conformed to masculine gender norms significantly less than other gender groups. Other gender groups tended to feel significantly less respected compared to their female and male counterparts. Additionally, both males and other gender groups ranked feminine traits significantly more negatively than females did. There were no significant differences between males, females, or other gender groups regarding masculine traits being ranked negatively or positively. Future research should examine the changes in stereotypical gender roles in recent years. Additionally, a larger sample of males and other gender groups would reveal more patterns.