Journal of Agricultural Hemp Research

Author Disclosures

Funding for a portion of the salaries of the authors was funded through USDA-NIFA Hatch Project MICL 02589.

The authors declare no conflict of interest in this work.


A nationwide internet survey (n = 134) was conducted to establish the current status of industrial hemp (IH; Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation and characterize protected culture production challenges in the United States. Of the total participants, 65.7% (n = 88) of the subjects reported current production of IH. These participants were asked to identify all production systems and included growing IH indoors (e.g., shipping containers, buildings or warehouses; 15.9%), in greenhouses (29.5%), in hoop houses or high tunnels (15.9%), or in outdoor fields in-ground (62.5%). Of the respondents who identified as growing under protected culture (e.g., indoors, greenhouses, and hoop houses/ high tunnels), most grew IH in soilless substrate and provided mineral nutrition, electrical lighting, and monitored plant health. Participants reported the most important production challenges of IH cultivation were at or post-harvest and included drying, harvesting and handling, processing, and CBD oil enhancement; several key production challenges including insect pest management strategies and environmental growing conditions; and variety/cultivar evaluations. Furthermore, respondents reported that the most important economic topic or challenge was return on investment. Results characterize current cultivation practices of IH, identify knowledge gaps, and prioritize education and research areas for the successful production and marketing of IH.

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